Influence of dexmedetomidine-propofol-isoflurane and medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane on intraocular pressure and pupil size in healthy dogs

https://doi.org/10.17221/115/2016-VETMEDCitation:Rauser P., Mrazova M., Zapletalova J. (2016): Influence of dexmedetomidine-propofol-isoflurane and medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane on intraocular pressure and pupil size in healthy dogs. Veterinarni Medicina, 61: 635-642.
download PDF
The present prospective, randomised, double-blinded clinical study was designed to investigate the commonly used anaesthetic combinations of dexmedetomidine-propofol-isoflurane and medetomidine-propofol-isoflurane on intraocular pressure and pupil size in dogs. Forty client-owned healthy dogs with no ocular abnormalities, average body weight of 25.7 ± 13.1 kg (mean ± SD) and aged 3.7 ± 2.7 years, were enrolled. Twenty four males and 16 females were included. Dogs were allocated randomly to receive dexmedetomidine i.v. at 0.005 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine at 0.01 mg/kg, medetomidine at 0.01 mg/kg or medetomidine at 0.02 mg/kg. Ten minutes later anaesthesia was induced in all dogs with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen-air. Intraocular pressure, pupil size, heart rate, respiratory frequency and arterial blood pressures (SAP, DAP) were measured prior to (baseline) and at 10 (before propofol), 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after dexmedetomidine or medetomidine administration. Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2) and end-tidal CO2 concentration (EtCO2) was monitored following anaesthesia induction. Data were analysed using Anderson-Darling and Bartlett’s tests for data distribution and homogeneity of variance confirmation and ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s tests for multiple comparisons. Changes were considered significant when P < 0.05. Following drug administration, pupil size, heart rate and respiratory frequency decreased significantly within groups, but did not differ between groups. No significant changes in intraocular pressure, SAP and DAP within and between groups, and SpO2 or EtCO2 between groups, were observed. Comparable doses of dexmedetomidine or medetomidine combined with propofol and isoflurane induced reductions in pupil size, respiratory frequency and heart rate, however, without a significant influence on intraocular pressure or arterial blood pressure.
References:
Almeida D. E., Rezende M. L., Nunes N., Laus J. L. (2004): Evaluation of intraocular pressure in association with cardiovascular parameters in normocapnic dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane and desflurane. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 7, 265-269  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2004.04041.x
 
Artigas Cristina, Redondo José I., López-Murcia María M. (2012): Effects of intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine on intraocular pressure and pupil size in clinically normal dogs. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 15, 79-82  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2011.00966.x
 
Batista C.M., Laus J.L., Nunes N., Patto dos Santos P.S., Costa J.L.O. (2000): Evaluation of intraocular and partial CO2 pressure in dogs anesthetized with propofol. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 3, 17-19  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1463-5224.2000.00099.x
 
Broadwater Joshua J., Schorling Jamie J., Herring Ian P., Elvinger François (2008): Effect of body position on intraocular pressure in dogs without glaucoma. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 69, 527-530  https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.69.4.527
 
Brunson David B. (1980): Anesthesia in Ophthalmic Surgery. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 10, 481-495  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-5616(80)50042-2
 
Brussel T, Thiessen JL, Vigfusson G, Lunkenheimer PP, Van Aken H, Lawin P (1989): Hemodynamic and cardiodynamic effects of propofol and etomidate: negative inotropic properties of propofol. Anesthesia and Analgesia 69, 35–40.
 
Cunningham Anthony J., Barry Peter (1986): Intraocular pressure -physiology and implications for anaesthetic management. Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal, 33, 195-208  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03010831
 
Gelatt KN, Brooks DE (1999): The canine glaucomas. In: Gelatt KN (ed.): Veterinary Ophthalmology. 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 701–754.
 
Hofmeister Erik H, Williams Clara O, Braun Christina, Moore Phillip Anthony (2008): Propofol versus thiopental: effects on peri-induction intraocular pressures in normal dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 35, 275-281  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2007.00385.x
 
HVIDBERG A., KESSING SV.V., FERNANDES A. (1981): EFFECT OF CHANGES IN PC02 AND BODY POSITIONS ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE DURING GENERAL ANAESTHESIA. Acta Ophthalmologica, 59, 465-475  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.1981.tb08331.x
 
JAAKOLA M.-L., ALI-MELKKILƖ T., KANTO J., KALLIO A., SCHEININ H., SCHEININ M. (1992): DEXMEDETOMIDINE REDUCES INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, INTUBATION REPONSES AND ANAESTHETIC REQUIREMENTS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING OPHTHALMIC SURGERY. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, 68, 570-575  https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/68.6.570
 
Kanda Teppei, Iguchi Ayano, Yoshioka Chieko, Nomura Haruka, Higashi Kanako, Kaya Minami, Yamamoto Rie, Kuramoto Tomoko, Furukawa Toshinori (2015): Effects of medetomidine and xylazine on intraocular pressure and pupil size in healthy Beagle dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 42, 623-628  https://doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12249
 
Lerche P., Reid J., Nolan A. M. (2000): Comparative study of propofol or propofol and ketamine for the induction of anaesthesia in dogs. Veterinary Record, 146, 571-574  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.146.20.571
 
MIRAKHUR R. K., SHEPHERD W. F. I., DARRAH W. C. (1987): PROPOFOL OR THIOPENTONE: EFFECTS ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE ASSOCIATED WITH INDUCTION OF ANAESTHESIA AND TRACHEAL INTUBATION (FACILITATED WITH SUXAMETHONIUM). BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, 59, 431-436  https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/59.4.431
 
Murphy DF (1985): Anaesthesia and intraocular pressure. Anesthesia and Analgesia 64, 520−530.
 
Murrell Joanna C, Hellebrekers Ludo J (2005): Medetomidine and dexmedetomidine: a review of cardiovascular effects and antinociceptive properties in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 32, 117-127  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2005.00233.x
 
PYPENDOP BRUNO H., VERSTEGEN JOHN P. (1998): Hemodynamic Effects of Medetomidine in the Dog: A Dose Titration Study. Veterinary Surgery, 27, 612-622  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.1998.tb00539.x
 
Quandt JE, Robinson EP, Rivers WJ, Raffe MR (1998): Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of propofol and thiopental in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 59, 1137–1143.
 
Rauser Petr, Pfeifr Jakub, Proks Pavel, Stehlík Ladislav (2012): Effect of medetomidine-butorphanol and dexmedetomidine-butorphanol combinations on intraocular pressure in healthy dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 39, 301-305  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2011.00703.x
 
Renwick P (2002): Glaucoma. In: Petersen-Jones S, Crispin S (eds): BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology. 2nd edn. BSAVA, Gloucester. 185–203.
 
Riva CE, Alm A, Pournaras CJ (2011): Ocular circulation. In: Levin LA, Nilsson SFE, Ver Hoeve J, Wu SM, Kaufman PL, Alm A (eds): Adler’s Physiology of the Eye. Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh. 243–273.
 
Sinclair MD (2003): A review of the physiological effects of alpha2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 44, 885–897.
 
Smith PV, Walton DS (2001): Prevention of vomiting after general anesthesia for pediatric ophthalmic surgery. AANA Journal 69, 39–43.
 
Verbruggen A‐M.J., Akkerdaas L.C., Hellebrekers L.J., Stades F.C. (2000): The effect of intravenous medetomidine on pupil size and intraocular pressure in normotensive dogs. Veterinary Quarterly, 22, 179-180  https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2000.9695052
 
Warner LO, Balch DR, Davidson PJ (1997): Is intravenous lidocaine an effective adjuvant for endotracheal intubation in children undergoing induction of anaesthesia with halothane-nitrous oxide? Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 9, 270–274.
 
Yoshitake S, Matsumoto K, Matsumoto S, Uchiumi R, Taniguchi K, Honda N (1992): Effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on intraocular pressure in adult patients. Masui. The Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology 41, 1730–1734.
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences