Histological and histomorphometric study of the cranial digestive tract of ostriches (Struthio camelus) with advancing age
The present study was conducted to determine the histological and histomorphometric variations in the tongue, oesophagus, proventriculus, and gizzard of ostriches (Struthio camelus) with regards to the sex and advancing age. A total of 40 healthy ostriches of both sexes and five age groups; young (up to 1 year, 1 to 2 years and 2 to 3 years) and adult (3 to 4 years and above 4 years) in equal numbers (n = 8) were used in this study. The organs under study were collected immediately after slaughtering the birds. Overall, the colour, shape, weight and various dimensions (length, width, and diameter) of the collected organs were recorded. The mean values of the gross anatomical variables of the studied organs increased (P < 0.05) among all the young groups (i.e., from 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years). Similarly, the organs under study in the adult groups (birds aged 3 to 4 years and above 4 years) grew (P < 0.05) as well. However, the differences between the adults were not significant. The histological analysis and histometric measurements were conducted on paraffin embedded tissue sections with Image J® analysis software. The statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in the thickness of the different tunics of the digestive organs in all the groups except those the adult groups. These findings may be of importance for the strategic manipulation of feed and nutrition to enhance the growth rate and also to diagnose pathological processes.
Abumandour MM. Morphological studies of the stomach of falcon. Sci J Vet Adv. 2013;2(3):30-40.
Bailey TA, Diamond JM, Fonkalsrud EW. Comparative morphology of the alimentary tract and its glandular derivatives of captive bustards. J Anat. 1997 Oct;191:387-98. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-7580.1997.19130387.x
Bancroft JD, Gamble M. Theory and practice of histological techniques. 6th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2008. p. 303-20.
Beason RC. Through a bird’s eye – Exploring avian sensory perception. Bird Strike Committee USA/Canada. 5th Joint Annual Meeting. Toronto: Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management; 2003.
Bezuidenhout AJ. Anatomia [Anatomy]. In: Deeming DC, editor. El avestruz: Biologia, produccion y sanidad [The ostrich: Biology, production and health]. Zaragoza: Acribia; 2001. p. 13-50. Spanish.
Camiruaga M, Garcia F, Elera R, Simonetti C. Respuesta productiva de pollos Broilers a la adicion de enzimas exogenas a dietas basadas en maiz o triticale [Productive response of broiler chickens to the addition of exogenous enzymes to corn or triticale-based diets]. Cien Inv Agr. 2003;28(1):23-6. Spanish. https://doi.org/10.7764/rcia.v28i1.432
Cooper RG, Mahroze KM. Anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract and growth curves of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Anim Sci J. 2004;75(6):491-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2004.00218.x
Elnagy TMMA, Osman DI. Anatomical study on the postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract in rabbits. J Vet Med Anim Prod. 2010;1(2):174-83.
Fukuda K, Yasugi S. The molecular mechanisms of stomach development in vertebrates. Dev Growth Differ. 2005 Aug;47(6):375-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-169X.2005.00816.x
Garcia A, Rodriguez P, Masot J, Franco A, Redondo E. Histomorphometric study of the goat stomach during prenatal development. Anim Sci J. 2014 Nov;85(11):951-62. https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12231
Guimaraes JP, Mari Rde B, Carvalho HS, Watanabe IS. Fine structure of the dorsal surface of ostrich’s (Struthio camelus) tongue. Zoolog Sci. 2009 Feb;26(2):153-6. https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.26.153
Hassan SA, Moussa EA. Gross and microscopic studies on the stomach of domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). J Vet Anat. 2012;5(2):105-27. https://doi.org/10.21608/jva.2012.44877
Iji PA, van der Walt JG, Brand TS, Boomker EA, Booyse D. Development of the digestive tract in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Arch Tierernahr. 2003 Jun;57(3):217-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/0003942031000136648
Irfan M, Mukhtar N, Ahmad T, Munir MT. Gastric impaction: An important health and welfare issue of growing ostriches. Agricultura Trop Subtrop. 2020;53(4):149-55.
Jackowiak H, Ludwig M. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the structure of the ostrich (Strutio camelus) tongue. Zoolog Sci. 2008 Feb;25(2):188-94. https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.25.188
Madkour FA. Morphological studies on the stomach of the post hatching ducks [PhD thesis]. Qena: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University; 2015.
Mahdy EAA. Some anatomical studies on the stomach of ostrich (Struthio camelus) [thesis]. Egypt: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University; 2009.
Mason F, Pascotto E, Zanfi C, Spanghero M. Effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and gastric mucosa integrity of heavy pigs at slaughter. Vet J. 2013 Dec;198(3):717-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09.054
Mol M. Morphological aspects of digestive apparatus in owl (Asio flammeus) and dove (Columba livia). Luc Stin Med Vet. 2010;8(2):364-7.
Rushing H, Wisnowski J, Karl A. Design and analysis of experiments by Douglas Montgomery: A supplement for using JMP. 6th ed. Cary, North Carolina, USA: SAS Institute Inc.; 2013. p. 26.
Nagy N, Igyarto B, Magyar A, Gazdag E, Palya V, Olah I. Oesophageal tonsil of the chicken. Acta Vet Hung. 2005;53(2):173-88. https://doi.org/10.1556/avet.53.2005.2.3
Nasrin M, Siddiqi MNH, Masum MA, Wares MA. Gross and histological studies of digestive tract of broilers during postnatal growth and development. J Bangladesh Agril Univ. 2012;10(1):69-77. https://doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v10i1.12096
Oliveira D, Colaco Filho MAC, Santos JF, Oliveira D, Barbosa AMS. Anatomic description of the proventriculus and gizzard of an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Braz J Morphol Sci. 2008;25(1-4):1-34.
Olsen P, Joseph L, CSIRO (Australia), Australian Biological Resources Study. Stray feathers: Reflections on the structure, behavior and evolution of birds. Collingwood, Vic.: CSIRO Publishing; 2011. 286 p.
Qureshi AS, Faisal T, Saleemi MK, Ali MZ. Histological and histometric alterations in the digestive tract and accessory glands of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) with sex and progressive age. J Anim Pla Sci. 2017;27(5):1528-33.
Rahman ML, Islam MR, Masuduzzaman M, Khan MZI. Lymphoid tissues in the digestive tract of deshi chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Bangladesh. Pak J Biol Sci. 2003;6(13):1145-50. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2003.1145.1150
Rossi JR, Baraldi-Artonii SM, Oliveira D, Cruz D, Franzo VS, Sagula A. Morphology of glandular stomach (Ventriculus glandularis) and muscular stomach (Ventriculus muscularis) of the partrigde Rhynchotus rufescens. Cienc Rural. 2005 Nov-Dec;35(6):1319-24. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782005000600014
Sales J. Digestive physiology and nutrition of ratites. Avian Poult Biol Rev. 2006;17(3):41-55. https://doi.org/10.3184/147020606783437912
Shanawany MM, Dingle JH. Ostrich production systems. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 144 Part 1. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 1999. 256 p.
Shiina T, Shimizu Y, Izumi N, Suzuki Y, Asano M, Atoji Y, Nikami H, Takewaki T. A comparative histological study on the distribution of striated and smooth muscles and glands in the esophagus of wild birds and mammals. J Vet Med Sci. 2005 Jan;67(1):115-7. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.67.115
Speer B. Ratite medicine and surgery. Proceedings of The North American Veterinary Conference, 2006. Orlando, Florida: NAVC, Gaylord Palms Resort & Convention Center; 2006. p. 1593-7.
Srisai D, Juntaravimol S, Pongkete P, Koonjaenak S, Suprasert A. Histological and histochemical studies on esophagus of the germain’s swiftlet (Collocalia germani Oustalet, 1878). Kasetsart Vet. 2002;12:16-21.
Starck JM, Rahmaan GH. Phenotypic flexibility of structure and function of the digestive system of Japanese quail. J Exp Biol. 2003 Jun;206(Pt 11):1887-97. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.00372
Szczepanczyk DE. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of the glandular stomach and gizzard in the long-tailed duck (Clangulahyemalis). Zool Poloniae. 2005;50(4):49-61.
Tadjalli M, Mansouri SH, Poostpasand A. Gross anatomy of the oropharyngeal cavity in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Iran J Vet Res. 2008;9(4):316-23.
Wang JX, Li P, Zhang XT, Ye LX. Developmental morphology study on the stomach of African ostrich chicks. Poult Sci. 2017 Jul 1;96(7):2006-12. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew504
Wu B, Li T, Yu X. Winter diet and digestive tract of the Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) in the Qinling mountains, China. Chin Birds. 2010;1(1):45-50. https://doi.org/10.5122/cbirds.2009.0018