Evaluation of colostrum quality in the Czech Republic using radial immunodiffusion and different types of refractometers

https://doi.org/10.17221/122/2018-VETMEDCitation:Pechova A., Slosarkova S., Stanek S., Nejedla E., Fleischer P. (2019): Evaluation of colostrum quality in the Czech Republic using radial immunodiffusion and different types of refractometers. Veterinarni Medicina, 64: 51-59.
download PDF

The objectives of this study were to determine the immunoglobulin G concentration of colostrum in Czech dairy cows, to compare refractometer results with results achieved using the radial immunodiffusion method and to evaluate the reliability of three types of refractometers and recommend the best solution for the evaluation of colostrum quality. Colostrum samples (n = 1522) were collected from 38 herds between 2015 and 2017. The immunological quality of colostrum was estimated using Brix refractometers (optical, simple digital, digital Misco) and compared with the immunoglobulin G concentration assessed using radial immunodiffusion. We found high variability in the quality of colostrum. The minimum, maximum and median of individual measurements were the following: radial immunodiffusion immunoglobulin G – 5.2, 199.1, 76.9 g/l; optical refractometer – 9.5, 32.0, 23.1% Brix; simple digital refractometer – 5.4, 35.0, 19.1% Brix; digital refractometer Misco – 9.8, 37.4, 23.2% Brix. On the basis of immunoglobulin G concentration assessed using radial immunodiffusion, 20.9% of colostrum samples were of low quality (immunoglobulin G < 50 g/l). The Spearman correlation coefficients between radial immunodiffusion and the Brix refractometer readings were 0.62–0.67 (< 0.001) according to the type of refractometer. The cut-off evaluation of the readings from optical and Misco digital refractometers both showed 20% Brix, with sensitivities of 89.4% and 88.2%, specificities of 73.2% and 74.5% and accuracies of 86.0% and 85.4%, respectively. The cut-off level for the simple digital refractometer showed 17% Brix with a sensitivity of 77.5%, specificity of 80.4% and an insufficient accuracy of 78.1%. For optical and Misco refractometers we recommend the use of two cut-off levels for the evaluation of colostrum: 23% Brix for the selection of good quality colostrum suitable for freezing and 19% Brix to discard poor quality colostrum. The different cut-off levels obtained by measuring with different types of refractometers indicate the need to check the quality of the instruments prior to their use in practice and, where appropriate, to determine their cut-off levels by comparison with results obtained using the reference method.

Bartens M-C, Drillich M, Rychli K, Iwersen M, Arnholdt T, Meyer L, Klein-Jöbstl D (2016): Assessment of different methods to estimate bovine colostrum quality on farm. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 64, 263-267  https://doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2016.1184109
Bartier A.L., Windeyer M.C., Doepel L. (2015): Evaluation of on-farm tools for colostrum quality measurement. Journal of Dairy Science, 98, 1878-1884  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8415
Beam A.L., Lombard J.E., Kopral C.A., Garber L.P., Winter A.L., Hicks J.A., Schlater J.L. (2009): Prevalence of failure of passive transfer of immunity in newborn heifer calves and associated management practices on US dairy operations. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 3973-3980  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2225
Bielmann V., Gillan J., Perkins N.R., Skidmore A.L., Godden S., Leslie K.E. (2010): An evaluation of Brix refractometry instruments for measurement of colostrum quality in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 3713-3721  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2943
Buczinski S., Vandeweerd J.M. (2016): Diagnostic accuracy of refractometry for assessing bovine colostrum quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 7381-7394  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-10955
Calloway Christopher D., Tyler Jeff W., Tessman Ronald K., Hostetler Douglas, Holle Julie (2002): Comparison of refractometers and test endpoints in the measurement of serum protein concentration to assess passive transfer status in calves. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 221, 1605-1608  https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2002.221.1605
Chigerwe Munashe, Tyler Jeff W., Middleton John R., Spain James N., Dill Jeffrey S., Steevens Barry J. (2008): Comparison of four methods to assess colostral IgG concentration in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 233, 761-766  https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.233.5.761
Santos Glauber dos, Silva Jackeline Thaís da, Santos Flávia Hermelina da Rocha, Bittar Carla Maris Machado (2017): Nutritional and microbiological quality of bovine colostrum samples in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 46, 72-79  https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-92902017000100011
Elsohaby I, McClure JT, Cameron M, Heider LC, Keefe GP (2017): Rapid assessment of bovine colostrum quality: How reliable are transmission infrared spectroscopy and digital and optical refractometers? Journal of Dairy Science 100, 1427–1435.
Godden Sandra (2008): Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 24, 19-39  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2007.10.005
Gulliksen S.M., Lie K.I., Sølverød L., Østerås O. (2008): Risk Factors Associated with Colostrum Quality in Norwegian Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 704-712  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0450
Kehoe S.I., Heinrichs A.J., Moody M.L., Jones C.M., Long M.R. (2011): Comparison of immunoglobulin G concentrations in primiparous and multiparous bovine colostrum1. The Professional Animal Scientist, 27, 176-180  https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30471-X
Klein-Jöbstl Daniela, Arnholdt Tim, Sturmlechner Franz, Iwersen Michael, Drillich Marc (2015): Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 57, -  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-015-0134-y
Krejci J, Kudlackova H, Tesarik R, Gebauer J, Faldyna M, Slosarkova S (2016): Immunodiffusion test for immunoglobulins in cow colostrum (in Czech). Functional sample. Veterinary Research Institute, ISBN 978-80-86895-92-5.
Løkke Mette Marie, Engelbrecht Rikke, Wiking Lars (2016): Covariance structures of fat and protein influence the estimation of IgG in bovine colostrum. Journal of Dairy Research, 83, 58-66  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029915000734
McGuirk Sheila M., Collins Michael (2004): Managing the production, storage, and delivery of colostrum. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 20, 593-603  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2004.06.005
Mercaldo Nathaniel D., Lau Kit F., Zhou Xiao H. (2007): Confidence intervals for predictive values with an emphasis to case–control studies. Statistics in Medicine, 26, 2170-2183  https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.2677
Moore Malantus, Tyler Jeff W., Chigerwe Munashe, Dawes Maisie E., Middleton John R. (2005): Effect of delayed colostrum collection on colostral IgG concentration in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 226, 1375-1377  https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2005.226.1375
Morrill KM, Conrad E, Lago A, Campbell J, Quigley J, Tyler H (2012a): Nationwide evaluation of quality and composition of colostrum on dairy farms in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 3997–4005.
Morrill KM, Conrad E, Polo J, Campbell J, Quigley J, Tyler H (2012b): Estimate of colostral immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry without or with caprylic acid fractionation. Journal of Dairy Science 95, 3987–3996.
Morrill K.M., Robertson K.E., Spring M.M., Robinson A.L., Tyler H.D. (2015): Validating a refractometer to evaluate immunoglobulin G concentration in Jersey colostrum and the effect of multiple freeze–thaw cycles on evaluating colostrum quality. Journal of Dairy Science, 98, 595-601  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8730
Pritchett Lori C., Gay Clive C., Besser Thomas E., Hancock Dale D. (1991): Management and Production Factors Influencing Immunoglobulin G1 Concentration in Colostrum from Holstein Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 2336-2341  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78406-3
Quigley J.D., Lago A., Chapman C., Erickson P., Polo J. (2013): Evaluation of the Brix refractometer to estimate immunoglobulin G concentration in bovine colostrum. Journal of Dairy Science, 96, 1148-1155  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5823
Rastani R.R., Grummer R.R., Bertics S.J., Gümen A., Wiltbank M.C., Mashek D.G., Schwab M.C. (2005): Reducing Dry Period Length to Simplify Feeding Transition Cows: Milk Production, Energy Balance, and Metabolic Profiles. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 1004-1014  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72768-5
Ruopp Marcus D., Perkins Neil J., Whitcomb Brian W., Schisterman Enrique F. (2008): Youden Index and Optimal Cut-Point Estimated from Observations Affected by a Lower Limit of Detection. Biometrical Journal, 50, 419-430  https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.200710415
Staněk S., Zink V., Doležal O., Štolc L. (2014): Survey of preweaning dairy calf-rearing practices in Czech dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 3973-3981  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7325
Stewart S., Godden S., Bey R., Rapnicki P., Fetrow J., Farnsworth R., Scanlon M., Arnold Y., Clow L., Mueller K., Ferrouillet C. (2005): Preventing Bacterial Contamination and Proliferation During the Harvest, Storage, and Feeding of Fresh Bovine Colostrum. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 2571-2578  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72933-7
Tyler JW, Steevens BJ, Hostetler DE, Holle JM, Denbigh JL (1999): Colostral immunoglobulin concentrations in Holstein and Guernsey cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60, 1136–1139.
USDA – United States Department of Agriculture (2016): Dairy 2014: Dairy Cattle Management Practices in the United States (2014). Available at www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/nahms/dairy/downloads/dairy14/Dairy14_dr_PartI.pdf (Accessed October 3, 2017).
Weaver Dusty M., Tyler Jeff W., VanMetre David C., Hostetler Douglas E., Barrington George M. (2000): Passive Transfer of Colostral Immunoglobulins in Calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 14, 569-577  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2000.tb02278.x
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti