Prostate cancer is the most common prostate disease diagnosed in castrated dogs. However, prostate cancer is considered to be quite rare in dog population. The presence of prostate tumours can lead to urethral obstruction. Other clinical signs include asymmetric, painful, hard growths on rectal examination, neurological deficit or lameness of the pelvic limbs and general symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss or difficult urination. The neoplastic process may spread to the neighbouring organs and give metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs and skeletal system. Patient with histopathologically confirmed prostate cancer should be examined for metastases. The prognosis is usually unfavourable because of late diagnosis and the presence of metastases. Therapeutic options include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Complete prostatectomy carries with it many complications and often requires osteotomy of pelvic fusions. For that reason, total prostatectomy is not commonly performed in companion animals; however, it should be considered in cases of early detection with the absence of metastases. This report presents the procedure of a complete prostatectomy in a dog with a pre-pubic anastomosis of the urethra, without osteotomy of the pelvic septum. The anastomosis of the urinary tract was placed outside the abdominal cavity, caudally from the laparotomy wound. The presented technique seems to be appropriate for the treatment of malignant tumours of the prostate gland in dogs.
Agnew DW, MacLachlan NJ (2017): Tumors of the genital systems. In: Meuten DJ (ed.): Tumors in Domestic Animals. 5th end. Willey Blackwell, Iowa. 689–722.
Bacon N, de M Souza CH, Franz S (2016): Total cysto-prostatectomy: Technique description and results in 2 dogs. Canadian Veterinary Journal 57, 141–146.
Bell FW, Klausner JS, Hayden DW, Feeney DA, Johnston SD (1991): Clinical and pathologic features of prostatic adenocarcinoma in sexually intact and castrated dogs: 31 cases (1970–1987). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 199, 1623–1630.
Bjorling Dale E. (1984): Traumatic Injuries of the Urogenital System. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 14, 61-76 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-5616(84)50005-9
Cornell Karen K., Bostwick David G., Cooley Dawn M., Hall Greg, Harvey H. Jay, Hendrick Mattie J., Pauli Bendicht U., Render James A., Stoica George, Sweet David C., Waters David J. (2000): Clinical and pathologic aspects of spontaneous canine prostate carcinoma: A retrospective analysis of 76 cases. The Prostate, 45, 173-183 https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0045(20001001)45:2<173::AID-PROS12>3.0.CO;2-R
Davies J. V., Read H. M. (1990): Sagittal pubic osteotomy in the investigation and treatment of intrapelvic neoplasia in the dog. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 31, 123-130 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.1990.tb00742.x
Durham SK, Dietze AE (1986): Prostatic adenocarcinoma with and without metastasis to bone in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 188, 1432–1436.
Freitag T, Jerram RM, Walker AM, Warman CG (2007): Surgical management of common canine prostatic conditions. Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians 29, 656–658.
GOLDSMID SARAH E., BELLENGER CHRISTOPHER R. (1991): Urinary Incontinence after Prostatectomy in Dogs. Veterinary Surgery, 20, 253-256 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.1991.tb01255.x
Hornbuckle WE, MacCoy DM, Allan GS, Gunther R (1978): Prostatic disease in the dog. The Cornell Veterinarian 68, 284–305.
Kincaide LF, Sanghvi NT, Cummings O (1996): Noninvasive ultrasonic subtotal ablation of the prostate in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57, 1225–1227.
Lai Chen-Li, van den Ham René, van Leenders Geert, van der Lugt Jaco, Mol Jan A., Teske Erik (2008): Histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of canine prostate cancer. The Prostate, 68, 477-488 https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.20720
Leav Irwin, Ling Gerald V. (1968): Adenocarcinoma of the canine prostate. Cancer, 22, 1329-1345 https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(196811)22:6<1329::AID-CNCR2820220633>3.0.CO;2-X
L'Eplattenier Henry F., van Nimwegen Sebastiaan A., van Sluijs Frederik J., Kirpensteijn Jolle (2006): Partial Prostatectomy Using Nd:YAG Laser for Management of Canine Prostate Carcinoma. Veterinary Surgery, 35, 406-411 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2006.00165.x
Liptak Julius M., Brutscher Stephen P., Monnet Eric, Dernell William S., Twedt David C., Kazmierski Kathy J., Walter Claudia U., Mullins Marie N., Larue Susan M., Withrow Stephen J. (2004): Transurethral Resection in the Management of Urethral and Prostatic Neoplasia in 6 Dogs. Veterinary Surgery, 33, 505-516 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950x.2004.04067.x
Mattoon J, Nyland TG (2002): Prostate and testes. In: Mattoon J, Nyland TG (eds): Small Animal Diagnostic Ultrasound. 2nd edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 250–266.
Nyland Thomas G., Wallack Seth T., Wisner Erik R. (2002): NEEDLE-TRACT IMPLANTATION FOLLOWING US-GUIDED FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY OF TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER, URETHRA, AND PROSTATE. Veterinary Radiology <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&"/> Ultrasound, 43, 50-53 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2002.tb00443.x
Teske E, Naan E.C, van Dijk E.M, Van Garderen E, Schalken J.A (2002): Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 197, 251-255 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0303-7207(02)00261-7
Weisse Chick, Berent Allyson, Todd Kim, Clifford Craig, Solomon Jeffrey (2006): Evaluation of palliative stenting for management of malignant urethral obstructions in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229, 226-234 https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.229.2.226
White Richard A.S. (2000): Prostatic surgery in the dog. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, 15, 46-51 https://doi.org/10.1053/svms.2000.7304