Fitness improvement of show jumping horses with deep water treadmill training

https://doi.org/10.17221/135/2016-VETMEDCitation:Vincze A., Szabo C., Veres S., Uto D., Hevesi A.T. (2017): Fitness improvement of show jumping horses with deep water treadmill training. Veterinarni Medicina, 62: 192-199.
download PDF

Athletes, including equine athletes need high intensity training in order to achieve high performance. However, continuous high intensity training often results in injuries to the locomotive system. The buoyancy of water reduces the force born on joints; therefore, training in water has been used for rehabilitation purposes both in humans and horses. The few studies dealing with water treadmill training of horses suggest that the fitness of horses can be improved using this training method, but none tested the subsequent performance of horses after water training. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the effect of water training of varying intensity on the fitness-related parameters of show jumpers during training and after competition. Four similarly trained show jumper sport horse (aged between 7−11 years) competing at the same level (110 cm) were selected. Horses were subjected to 44-min deep water treadmill training with three intensities (9, 11, 13 km/h maximum speed) three times a week in addition to their normal training. At the conclusion of the week, horses participated in a two-day indoor show jumping event. Blood samples (4 ml) were taken from the jugular vein during the third water training and before and after the completion of the show jumping course on each day. From the blood plasma, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, as well as lactate, glucose and triglyceride levels were determined. Data analysis was carried out with SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, USA) using the GLM procedure and Duncan’s new multiple range test. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the same blood parameters from different sampling times. No interactions were detected between training intensity and sampling time during water training. Plasma lactate and glucose levels were decreased during the water training, while values increased afterwards. In contrast, heart rate, triglyceride and cortisol levels were elevated as a result of water training. Increasing the maximum speed of the water treadmill had no influence on the average heart rate of horses subjected to the training. Plasma lactate levels decreased with the increased maximum speed of the water trainer. Activities of AST, CK, LDH, and levels of cholesterol, cortisol and bilirubin decreased when the maximum speed of the treadmill was set to 11 km/h compared to the 9 km/h training. Water training resulted in lower heart rate measured right after completing the show jumping course when horses were subjected to medium intensity water training. The AST, CK and LDH activities measured before and after water training had only weak to moderate positive correlations with values measured after competition. In conclusion, our results indicate that deep-water training alters the biochemical processes and can improve the aerobic energy supply of show jumpers. Water training is a strenuous exercise, which initially leads to increased muscle damage. However, this initial phase is followed by subsequent adaptation.

References:
Arfuso F., Giannetto C., Giudice E., Fazio F., Piccione G. (2016): Dynamic modulation of platelet aggregation, albumin and nonesterified fatty acids during physical exercise in Thoroughbred horses. Research in Veterinary Science, 104, 86-91  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.11.013
 
Art T, Amory H, Desmecht D, Lekeux P (1990a): Effect of show jumping on heart rate, blood lactate and other plasma biochemical values. Equine Veterinary Journal 22, 78–82.
 
Art T, Desmecht D, Amory H, Delonge O, Buchet M, Leroy P, Lekeux P (1990b): A field study of post-exercise values of blood biochemical constituents in jumping horses: relationship with score, individual and event. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 37, 231–239.
 
Balogh N., Gaál T., Ribiczeyné P. Sz., Petri Á. (2001): Biochemical and Antioxidant Changes in Plasma and Erythrocytes of Pentathlon Horses Before and After Exercise. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 30, 214-218  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2001.tb00434.x
 
Casella Stefania, Vazzana Irene, Giudice Elisabetta, Fazio Francesco, Piccione Giuseppe (2016): Relationship between serum cortisol levels and some physiological parameters following reining training session in horse. Animal Science Journal, 87, 729-735  https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12478
 
Coenen M. (2005): Exercise and stress: impact on adaptive processes involving water and electrolytes. Livestock Production Science, 92, 131-145  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.11.018
 
COUROUCÉ A., CORDE R., VALETTE J.P., CASSIAT G., HODGSON D.R., ROSE R.J. (2000): Comparison of some Responses to Exercise on the Track and the Treadmill in French Trotters: Determination of the Optimal Treadmill Incline. The Veterinary Journal, 159, 57-63  https://doi.org/10.1053/tvjl.1999.0381
 
Ellis AD, Hill J (eds) (2005): Nutritional Physiology of the Horse. Nottingham University Press, UK. 372 pp.
 
EVANS D. L., HARRIS R. C., SNOW D. H. (1993): Correlation of racing performance with blood lactate and heart rate after exercise in Thoroughbred horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 25, 441-445  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1993.tb02987.x
 
Fazio F., Assenza A., Tosto F., Casella S., Piccione G., Caola G. (2011): Training and haematochemical profile in Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds: A longitudinal study. Livestock Science, 141, 221-226  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.06.005
 
Gottlieb-Vedi M., Lindholm A. (1997): Comparison of standardbred trotters exercising on a treadmill and a race track with identical draught resistances. Veterinary Record, 140, 525-528  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.140.20.525
 
HAMLIN M. J., SHEARMAN J. P., HOPKINS W. G. (2002): Changes in physiological parameters in overtrained Standardbred racehorses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 34, 383-388  https://doi.org/10.2746/042516402776249146
 
HARRIS PAT A., SNOW D. H., GREET T. R. C., ROSSDALE P. D. (1990): Some factors influencing plasma AST/CK activities in Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 22, 66-71  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1990.tb04738.x
 
Harris P, Roberts C, Armstrong S, Murray R, Handel I (2014): Heart Rate Responses in Show-Jumpers Over A Three-Day Training Session. Equine Veterinary Journal, 46, 18-18  https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.12267_53
 
Hyyppa S. (2001): Effects of Nandrolone Treatment on Recovery in Horses After Strenuous Physical Exercise. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, 48, 343-352  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0442.2001.00368.x
 
Hyyppa S (2008): Blood glucose in horses at rest and exercise. In: Saastamoinen MT, Martin-Rosset W (eds): Nutrition of the Exercising Horse. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 432 pp.
 
Kang Ok-Deuk, Ryu Youn-Chul, Yun Young-Min, Kang Min-Soo (2012): Physiological Changes in Jeju Crossbred Riding Horses by Swim Training. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 25, 200-206  https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11318
 
Knudsen DM, Jorgensen ZF (2000): Swimming training in horses compared with racing or riding training. Dansk Veterinærtidsskrift 83, 6–10.
 
Lawrence LM (1994): Nutrition in the athletic horse. In: Hodgson DR, Rose RJ (eds): The Athletic Horse: Principles and Practice of Equine Sports Medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia. 205–1230.
 
Lindner A. E. (): Maximal lactate steady state during exercise in blood of horses. Journal of Animal Science, 88, 2038-2044  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2693
 
Lindner A, Wäschle S, Sasse H H L (2010): Effect of exercise on a treadmill submerged in water on biochemical and physiological variables of horses. Pferdeheilkunde Equine Medicine, 26, 781-788  https://doi.org/10.21836/PEM20100603
 
Lindner A., Wäschle S., Sasse H. H. L. (2012): Physiological and blood biochemical variables in horses exercising on a treadmill submerged in water. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 96, 563-569  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01179.x
 
Nankervis K J, Thomas S, Marlin D J (2008): Effect of water temperature on heart rate of horses during water treadmill exercise. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 5, 127-  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1478061509342358
 
Piccione Giuseppe, Arfuso Francesca, Marafioti Simona, Giannetto Claudia, Giudice Elisabetta, Fazio Francesco (2015): Different Training Schedules Influence Serum Electrophoretic Protein Profile in the Athletic Horse. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35, 856-859  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2015.08.008
 
Serrano MG, Evans DL, Hodgson JL (2001): Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations in a field fitness test for event horses. Australian Equine Veterinary Journal 19, 154–160.
 
Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan M., Barneveld A. (1995): Comparison of the workload of Dutch warmblood horses ridden normally and on a treadmill. Veterinary Record, 137, 136-139  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.137.6.136
 
OLDRUITENBORGH-OOSTERBAAN M. M. SLOET, SPIERENBURG A. J., BROEK E. T. W. (2006): The workload of riding-school horses during jumping. Equine Veterinary Journal, 38, 93-97  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2006.tb05520.x
 
Soares Otavio Augusto Brioschi, D'Angelis Flora Helena de Freitas, Feringer Júnior Walter Heinz, Nardi Kamirro Bacciotti, Trigo Pablo, Almeida Fernando Queiroz de, Miranda Cláudia Tavares, Queiroz- Neto Antonio, Ferraz Guilherme de Camargo (2013): Serum activity of creatine kinase and aminotransferase aspartate enzymes of horses submitted to muscle biopsy and incremental jump test. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 14, 299-307  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-99402013000200005
 
TRILK J. L., LINDNER A. J., GREENE H. M., ALBERGHINA D., WICKLER S. J. (2002): A lactate-guided conditioning programme to improve endurance performance. Equine Veterinary Journal, 34, 122-125  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2002.tb05403.x
 
Werkmann J, Lindner A, Sasse HHL (1996): Conditioning effects in horses of exercise of 5, 15, or 25 minutes’ duration at two blood lactate concentrations. Pferdeheilkunde 12, 474–479.
 
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti