The effect of water-restriction on various physiological variables in intensively reared Lacaune ewes

https://doi.org/10.17221/144/2015-VETMEDCitation:Casamassima D., Vizzarri F., Nardoia M., Palazzo M. (2016): The effect of water-restriction on various physiological variables in intensively reared Lacaune ewes. Veterinarni Medicina, 61: 623-634.
download PDF
The effects of water restriction on rectal temperature, respiratory rate and selected blood variables in intensively reared Lacaune ewes were evaluated. The tests were carried out over the course of 28 days in spring on 30 lactating sheep divided into three groups of 10 animals each, matched by lactation status and body weight and allocated into individual boxes. The animal groups were as follows: control group W100 with drinking water for the whole day (24 h/24 h), while the two experimental groups each received 80% (W80 group) and 60% (W60 group) of the water ration of the control group, respectively. The feed, in according with physiological and production needs of the animals, was administered in three daily meals (08:00, 14:00 and 20:00 h). Water intake was recorded three times per day (at 08:00, 14:00 and 20:00 h) and the daily feed intake at 08:00 h, while the rectal temperature, respiratory rate were measured and blood samplings were carried out on Day 0, Day 14 and Day 28. In water-restriction groups (W80 and W60) a lower (P < 0.01) feed intake of meadow hay, and a lower ingestion of alfalfa hay pellet in the W60 group compared to W100 group were observed. In addition, the water restriction regimen resulted in a significant decrease of respiratory rate (P < 0.05) and an increase in serum total protein, urea, creatinine, sodium, chlorine, reactive oxygen metabolites, cortisol, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.05), red blood cell counts, and haematocrit (P < 0.01). These results show the important role of water, as limiting factor for animal breeding in low-water availability environments. Where possible, the management of low-dairy breeds should be well adapted to support the productive performance.
References:
Abd El-latif H, Ismail E, Salem M, Hassan GA (1997): Effect of dehydration on some biochemical constituents of blood in Barki, Suffolk and their crossbred sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Science 67, 786–791.
 
Abdelatif A.M., Ahmed M.M.M. (1994): Water restriction, thermoregulation, blood constituents and endocrine responses in Sudanese desert sheep. Journal of Arid Environments, 26, 171-180  https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.1994.1021
 
Aganga A.A., Umunna N.N., Oyedipe E.O., Okoh P.N. (1989): Influence of water restriction on some serum components in Yankasa ewes. Small Ruminant Research, 2, 19-26  https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(89)90013-8
 
Ajibola A (2000): The effect of water deprivation and atropine administration on gastro-intestinal function in goats. [MSc Thesis.] University of Pretoria, South Africa.
 
Al-Ramamneh D., Riek A., Gerken M. (2012): Effect of water restriction on drinking behaviour and water intake in German black-head mutton sheep and Boer goats. animal, 6, 173-178  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731111001431
 
Al-Toum Mohammed O., Al-Johany Awadh M. (2000): Water deprivation and its effect on some blood constituents in Idmi Gazelle, Gazella gazella. Journal of Arid Environments, 45, 253-262  https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.1999.0606
 
Alamer M (2005): Effect of deprivation and season on some biochemical constituents of blood in Awassi and Najdi sheep breeds in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advance 48, 15–20.
 
Alamer M (2010): Effect of water restriction on thermoregulation and some biochemical constituents in lactating Aardi goats during got weather conditions. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research 11, 189–205.
 
Alamer Mohammed, Al-hozab Adel (2004): Effect of water deprivation and season on feed intake, body weight and thermoregulation in Awassi and Najdi sheep breeds in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments, 59, 71-84  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.01.003
 
Andrew S.M., Erdman R.A., Waldo D.R. (1995): Prediction of Body Composition of Dairy Cows at Three Physiological Stages from Deuterium Oxide and Urea Dilution. Journal of Dairy Science, 78, 1083-1095  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76725-X
 
Ashour G, Benlemlih S (2000): Adaptation of Mediterranean breeds to heat stress and water deprivation. In: Guessous F, Rihani N, Ilham A (eds): Livestock Production and Climatic Uncertainty in the Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Joint ANPA-EAAP-CIHEAM-FAO Symposium. Agadir, Morocco. 63–74.
 
AOAC – Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2006): Official Methods of Analysis. 18th edn. AOAC Int., Arlington.
 
Brosh Arieh, Shkolnik Amiram, Choshniak Itzhak (1986): Metabolic Effects of Infrequent Drinking and Low-Quality Feed on Bedouin Goats. Ecology, 67, 1086-1090  https://doi.org/10.2307/1939831
 
Brosh A., Shkolnik A., Choshniak I. (1987): Effects of infrequent drinking on the nitrogen metabolism of Bedouin goats maintained on different diets. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 109, 165-  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600081107
 
Burgos MS, Senn M, Sutter F, Kreuzer M, Langhans W (2001): Effect of water restriction on feeding and metabolism in dairy cows. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 280, R418–R427.
 
Carter R R, Grovum W L (1990): A review of the physiological significance of hypertonic body fluids on feed intake and ruminal function: salivation, motility and microbes.. Journal of Animal Science, 68, 2811-  https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.6892811x
 
Casamassima D., Pizzo R., Palazzo M., D’Alessandro A.G., Martemucci G. (2008): Effect of water restriction on productive performance and blood parameters in comisana sheep reared under intensive condition. Small Ruminant Research, 78, 169-175  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2008.03.014
 
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Carratelli MA (1999): Simple test to monitor oxidative stress. International Journal of Angiology 18, 127–130.
 
Choshniak I, Ben-Kohav N, Taylor CR, Robertshaw D, Barnes RJ, Dobson A, Belkin V, Shkolnik A (1995): Metabolic adaptations for desert survival in Bedouin goat. American Journal Physiology 268, 1101–1110.
 
DAHLBORN K., HOLTENIUS K., OLSSON K. (1988): Effects of intraruminal loads of saline or water followed by voluntary drinking in the dehydrated lactating goat. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 132, 67-73  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1988.tb08299.x
 
Degen A. Allan (1977): Responses to Dehydration in Native Fat-Tailed Awassi and Imported German Mutton Merino Sheep. Physiological Zoology, 50, 284-293  https://doi.org/10.1086/physzool.50.4.30155732
 
Dmi'el Razi (1986): Selective sweat secretion and panting modulation in dehydrated goats. Journal of Thermal Biology, 11, 157-159  https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4565(86)90040-9
 
Farid MF, Shawket SM, Abdel-Rahman MHA (1979): Observations on the nutrition of camels and sheep under stress. In: Camels. IFS Symposium, Sudan. 125–170.
 
Ghanem AM (2005): The effect of vitamin C supplementation on some physiological an immunological indicators in water-deprived Awassi ewes. [MSc Thesis.] American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
 
Ghanem A.M., Jaber L.S., Abi Said M., Barbour E.K., Hamadeh S.K. (2008): Physiological and chemical responses in water-deprived Awassi ewes treated with vitamin C. Journal of Arid Environments, 72, 141-149  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2007.06.005
 
Hadjigeorgiou I, Dardamani K, Goulas C, Zervas G (2000): The effect of water availability on feed intake and digestion in sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 37, 147-150  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(99)00142-X
 
Hamadeh S.K., Rawda N., Jaber L.S., Habre A., Abi Said M., Barbour E.K. (2006): Physiological responses to water restriction in dry and lactating Awassi ewes. Livestock Science, 101, 101-109  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.09.016
 
Hanna N (2006): Physiological changes in water stressed Awassi ewes supplemented with vitamin C. [MSc Thesis.] American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
 
Holter J.B., Urban W.E. (1992): Water Partitioning and Intake Prediction in Dry and Lactating Holstein Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 75, 1472-1479  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77904-1
 
Hossaini-Hilali Jamal, Benlamlih Said, Dahlborn Kristina (1994): Effects of dehydration, rehydration, and hyperhydration in the lactating and non-lactating black Moroccan goat. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 109, 1017-1026  https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(94)90251-8
 
Igbokwe I.O. (1993): Haemoconcentration in Yankasa sheep exposed to prolonged water deprivation. Small Ruminant Research, 12, 99-105  https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(93)90042-G
 
Ikhatua UJ, Dede TI, Apumami AS (1992): Water and feed utilisation relationship in West African Dwarf (forest) goats of Southern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 19, 120–124.
 
Jaber L.S, Habre A, Rawda N, Abi Said M, Barbour E.K, Hamadeh S (2004): The effect of water restriction on certain physiological parameters in Awassi sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 54, 115-120  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2003.11.004
 
Jacob R. H., Pethick D. W., Clark P., D'Souza D. N., Hopkins D. L., White J. (2006): Quantifying the hydration status of lambs in relation to carcass characteristics. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 46, 429-  https://doi.org/10.1071/EA04093
 
Karnib M (2009): The effect of vitamin C administration on some physiological parameters in water and feed restricted dry Awassi ewes. [MSc Thesis.] American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
 
Kataria N, Kataria AK (2007): Compartmental water management of Marwari sheep during dehydration and rehydration. Veterinary Archives 77, 551–559.
 
KEENAN D. M., ALLARDYCE C. J. (1986): Changes in plasma creatinine levels of sheep during submaintenance feeding. Australian Veterinary Journal, 63, 29-30  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1986.tb02871.x
 
Khan M. S., Ghosh P. K., Sasidharan T. O. (1978): Effect of acute water restriction on plasma proteins and on blood and urinary electrolytes in Barmer goats of the Rajasthan desert. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 91, 395-  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600046487
 
Laden S., Nehmadi L., Yagil R. (1987): Dehydration tolerance in Awassi fat-tailed sheep. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65, 363-367  https://doi.org/10.1139/z87-056
 
Li B. T., Christopherson R. J., Cosgrove S. J. (2000): Effect of water restriction and environmental temperatures on metabolic rate and physiological parameters in sheep. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 80, 97-104  https://doi.org/10.4141/A99-041
 
MacFarlane WV (1964): Terrestrial animals in dry heat: ungulates. In: Dill DB, Adolph EFA, Wilberg CC (eds): Handbook of Physiology. American Physiology Society. 509–539.
 
Macfarlane WV, Morris RJH, Howard B, McDonald J, Budtz-Olsen OE (1961): Water and electrolyte changes in tropical Merino sheep exposed to dehydration during summer. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 12, 889-  https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9610889
 
Maloiy G.M.O., Kanui T.I., Towett P.K., Wambugu S.N., Miaron J.O., Wanyoike M.M. (2008): Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 151, 185-190  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.06.019
 
Marini J. C., Klein J. D., Sands J. M., Van Amburgh M. E. (2004): Effect of nitrogen intake on nitrogen recycling and urea transporter abundance in lambs. Journal of Animal Science, 82, 1157-  https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8241157x
 
Mengistu U (2007): Performance of the Ethiopian Somali goat during different watering regimes. [PhD Thesis.] Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Uppsala.
 
Muna M.M.Ahmed, Ammar I.El Shafei (2001): Effects of water and feed restriction on body weight change and nitrogen balance in desert goats fed high and low quality forages. Small Ruminant Research, 41, 19-27  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(01)00181-X
 
Musimba N. K. R., Pieper Rex D., Wallace Joe D., Galyean Michael L. (1987): Influence of Watering Frequency on Forage Consumption and Steer Performance in Southeastern Kenya. Journal of Range Management, 40, 412-  https://doi.org/10.2307/3899599
 
NCR – National Council of Research (1971): 8. Research under field condition. In: McDowell RE, Johnston JE (eds): A Guide to Environmental Research on Animals. 1st edn. National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 306–359.
 
Olsson Kerstin, Dahlborn Kristina (1989): FLUID BALANCE DURING HEAT STRESS IN LACTATING GOATS. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, 74, 645-659  https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.1989.sp003317
 
Osbaldiston GW (1971): The kidney: its function and evaluation in health and disease. In: Kaneko JJ, Cornelius CE (eds): Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York. 2–28.
 
Parker A. J., Hamlin G. P., Coleman C. J., Fitzpatrick L. A. (2003): Dehydration in stressed ruminants may be the result of acortisol-induced diuresis. Journal of Animal Science, 81, 512-  https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.812512x
 
Parrot RF, Lloyd DM, Goode JA (1996): Stress hormone response of sheep to food and water deprivation at high and low ambient temperatures. Animal Welfare 5, 45–56.
 
Qinisa MM, Boomker EA, Mokoboki HK (2011): Physiological responses of water-restricted Tswana and Boer goats. Life Science Journal 8, 106–111.
 
Rahardja D. P., Toleng A. L., Lestari V. S. (2011): Thermoregulation and water balance in fat-tailed sheep and Kacang goat under sunlight exposure and water restriction in a hot and dry area. animal, 5, 1587-1593  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731111000577
 
Rawda N (2003): The effect of water restriction on some physiological and immunological indicators in dry and lactating Awassi ewes. [MSc Thesis.] American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
 
Robertshaw David, Dmi'el Razi (1983): The Effect of Dehydration on the Control of Panting and Sweating in the Black Bedouin Goat. Physiological Zoology, 56, 412-418  https://doi.org/10.1086/physzool.56.3.30152606
 
SCHAEFER A. L., JONES S. D. M., TONG A. K. W., LEPAGE P., MURRAY N. L. (1990): THE EFFECTS OF WITHHOLDING FEED AND WATER ON SELECTIVE BLOOD METABOLITES IN MARKET-WEIGHT BEEF STEERS. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 70, 1155-1158  https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas90-142
 
Schalm OW, Jain NC, Carroll EJ (eds) (1975): Veterinary Hematology. 3rd edn. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. 807 pp.
 
Schoeman S. J., Visser J. A. (1995): Comparative water consumption and efficiency in three divergent sheep types. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 124, 139-  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600071343
 
Sies H (1991): Oxidative stress: introduction. In: Sies H (ed.): Oxidative Stress: Oxidants and Antioxidants. Academic Press Ltd., Orlando. 15–23.
 
Silanikove Nissm (1985): Effect of dehydration on feed intake and dry matter digestibility in desert (black bedouin) and non-desert (Swiss saanen) goats fed on lucerne hay. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 80, 449-452  https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(85)90066-0
 
Silanikove N (1994): The struggle to maintain hydration and osmoregulation in animals experiencing severe dehydration and rapid rehydration: the story of ruminants. Experimental Physiology, 79, 281-300  https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.1994.sp003764
 
Silanikove Nissim (2000): The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments. Small Ruminant Research, 35, 181-193  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(99)00096-6
 
Turner Jack C (1979): Osmotic fragility of desert bighorn sheep red blood cells. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 64, 167-175  https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(79)90446-8
 
Zhou X., Burg M. B., Ferraris J. D. (2012): Water restriction increases renal inner medullary manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). AJP: Renal Physiology, 303, F674-F680  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00076.2012
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences