B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in an African lion (Panthera leo)

https://doi.org/10.17221/144/2017-VETMEDCitation:Meoli R, Eleni C, Cavicchio P, Tonnicchia MC, Biancani B, Galosi L, Rossi G (2018): B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in an African lion (Panthera leo). Veterinarni Medicina, 63: 433-437.
download PDF

A 15-year-old female African lion (Panthera leo) maintained at the Zoological Garden of Pistoia, Tuscany (Italy), showed signs of malaise, dyspnoea, tremors, pale mucous membranes and ataxia for two days prior to death. Complete blood count showed anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and severe lymphocytosis. At autopsy, the most relevant finding was severe, generalised splenomegaly. Histologically, high numbers of neoplastic lymphocytes diffusely infiltrated the spleen, liver, heart, pancreas, kidney and lungs. The lymphoid cells were positive for CD79a and negative for CD3 on immunohistochemistry. The histologic features of the neoplastic cells and their immunophenotype are consistent with B-cell lymphocytes. Based on surface membrane co-expression of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin D in most neoplastic cells, which indicated that they were naïve, antigen-inexperienced and mature circulating resting B-cells, and consistent with their appearance as small lymphocytes with high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratios, a diagnosis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was made.

References:
Bennett J M, Catovsky D, Daniel M T, Flandrin G, Galton D A, Gralnick H R, Sultan C (1989): Proposals for the classification of chronic (mature) B and T lymphoid leukaemias. French-American-British (FAB) Cooperative Group.. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 42, 567-584 https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.42.6.567
 
Binet J. L., Auquier A., Dighiero G., Chastang C., Piguet H., Goasguen J., Vaugier G., Potron G., Colona P., Oberling F., Thomas M., Tchernia G., Jacquillat C., Boivin P., Lesty C., Duault M. T., Monconduit M., Belabbes S., Gremy F. (1981): A new prognostic classification of chronic lymphocytic leukemia derived from a multivariate survival analysis. Cancer, 48, 198-206 https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19810701)48:1<198::AID-CNCR2820480131>3.0.CO;2-V
 
Caligaris-Cappio F, Gottardi D, Alfarano A, Stacchini A, Gregoretti MG, Ghia P, Bertero MT, Novarino A, Bergui L (1993): The nature of the B lymphocyte in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood Cells 19, 601–613.
 
Callanan J. J., Jones B. A., Irvine J., Willett B. J., McCandlish I. A. P., Jarrett O. (2016): Histologic Classification and Immunophenotype of Lymphosarcomas in Cats with Naturally and Experimentally Acquired Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infections. Veterinary Pathology, 33, 264-272 https://doi.org/10.1177/030098589603300302
 
Catovsky D, Ralfkiaer E, Muller-Hermelink HK (2001): T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia. In: Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, Vardiman JW (eds): World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon, France: IARC Press. 195–196.
 
Coffman RL, Cohn M (1977): The class of surface immunoglobulin on virgin and memory B lymphocytes. The Journal of Immunology 118, 1806–1815.
 
GABOR LJ, MALIK R., CANFIELD PJ (1998): Clinical and anatomical features of lymphosarcoma in 118 cats. Australian Veterinary Journal, 76, 725-732 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1998.tb12300.x
 
Ginaldi L., De Martinis M., Matutes E., Farahat N., Morilla R., Catovsky D. (1998): Levels of expression of CD19 and CD20 in chronic B cell leukaemias. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 51, 364-369 https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.51.5.364
 
Hallek M., Cheson B. D., Catovsky D., Caligaris-Cappio F., Dighiero G., Dohner H., Hillmen P., Keating M. J., Montserrat E., Rai K. R., Kipps T. J. (2008): Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a report from the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia updating the National Cancer Institute-Working Group 1996 guidelines. Blood, 111, 5446-5456 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-06-093906
 
Harrison T. M., McKnight C. A., Sikarskie J. G., Kitchell B. E., Garner M. M., Raymond J. T., Fitzgerald S. D., Valli V. E., Agnew D., Kiupel M. (2010): Malignant Lymphoma in African Lions ( Panthera Leo ). Veterinary Pathology, 47, 952-957 https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985810375054
 
Helfand SC, Kisseberth WC (2010): General features of leukemia and lymphoma. In: Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ (eds): Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 6th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames. 455–466.
 
Hruban Z., Vardiman J., Meehan T., Frye F., Carter W.E. (1992): Haematopoietic malignancies in zoo animals. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 106, 15-24 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9975(92)90064-2
 
Leong ASY, Cooper K, Leong F, Joel WM (eds) (2003): Manual of Diagnostic Cytology. 2nd edn. Greenwich Medical Media. 83–84.
 
Moreau Elisabeth J., Matutes Estella, A’Hern Roger P., Morilla Alison M., Morilla Ricardo M., Owusu-Ankomah Kwasi A., Seon Ben K., Catovsky Daniel (1997): Improvement of the Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Scoring System With the Monoclonal Antibody SN8(CD79b). American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 108, 378-382 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/108.4.378
 
Owston Michael A., Ramsay Edward C., Rotstein David S. (2008): Neoplasia in Felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979–2003. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 39, 608-613 https://doi.org/10.1638/2008-068.1
 
Poli Alessandro, Abramo Francesca, Cavicchio Paolo, Bandecchi Patrizia, Ghelardi Emilia, Pistello Mauro (1995): Lentivirus Infection in an African Lion: A Clinical, Pathologic and Virologic Study. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 31, 70-74 https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-31.1.70
 
Teare AJ (ed.) (1999): International Species Information System: Physiological Data Reference Values. Apple Valley.
 
Tebb A. J., Cave T., Barron R., Brown A. L., Martineau H. M., Willett B. J., Hosie M. J. (2004): Diagnosis and management of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in a cat. Veterinary Record, 154, 430-433 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.154.14.430
 
Tordiffe Adrian S.W., Cassel Nicky, Lane Emily P., Reyers Fred (2013): Multiple myeloma in a captive lion (<i>Panthera leo</i>). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 84, - https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v84i1.949
 
Valli VE (2010): B-cell Tumors. In: Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ (eds): Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 6th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames. 491–585.
 
Valli V. E., Jacobs R. M., Norris A., Couto C. G., Morrison W. B., McCaw D., Cotter S., Ogilvie G., Moore A. (2016): The Histologic Classification of 602 Cases of Feline Lymphoproliferative Disease using the National Cancer Institute Working Formulation. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 12, 295-306 https://doi.org/10.1177/104063870001200401
 
Vezzali E., Parodi A. L., Marcato P. S., Bettini G. (2010): Histopathologic classification of 171 cases of canine and feline non-Hodgkin lymphoma according to the WHO. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 8, 38-49 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5829.2009.00201.x
 
download PDF

© 2018 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences