Haematological reference intervals in captive African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus)

https://doi.org/10.17221/15/2020-VETMEDCitation:

Gaspar H, Bargallo F, Grifols J, Correia E, Pinto ML (2021): Haematological reference intervals in captive African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Vet Med-Czech 66, 24–31.

download PDF

The African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is one of the most popular avian pets in exotic animal practice. In this study, blood samples (n = 459) from healthy African Grey parrots (n = 239) were collected for haematological testing. Reference intervals were determined according to the guidelines of the American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology with the Reference Value Advisor (v2.1) freeware. The calculated reference intervals (RIs) were: packed cell volume 38–59%; haemoglobin 105–154 g/l; RBC 2.3–3.3 106/µl; MCV 145.5–199.7 fl; MHC 38.3–55.6 pg; MCHC 232–313 g/l; WBC 2.7–12.6 103/µl; heterophils 1.2–10.2 103/µl; lymphocytes 0.8–4.3 103/µl; monocytes 0.0–0.6 103/µl; basophils 0.0–0.1 103/µl; eosinophils 0.0–0.2 103/µl. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in psittacines to use such a high number of birds and samples to establish haematological species-specific RIs, providing a valuable tool to professionals dealing with the health of African Grey parrots.

References:
ASVCP – American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Guidelines for the determination of reference intervals (RI) in veterinary species and other related topics [Internet]. Madison, WI: American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 2012 (cited 2018 Nov 17). Available from: www.asvcp.org/membersonly/ReferenceInterval.cfm.
 
Bearhop S, Griffiths R, Orr K, Furness RW. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) as a measure of condition in birds. Ecol Lett. 1999;2(6):352-6. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.1999.00088.x
 
Bellwood B, Andrasik-Catton M. Blood analysis. In: Bellwood B, Andrasik-Cratton M, editors. Veterinary technician’s handbook of laboratory procedures. Ames, Iowa: Wiley Blackwell; 2013. p. 17-52.
 
Best JR. Handling. In: Harcourt-Brown NH, Chitty J, editors. BSAVA manual of psittacine birds. 2nd ed. British Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2005. p. 31-4.
 
Campbell TW. Hematology. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, editors. Avian medicine: Principles and application. Lake Worth, Fla: Wingers Pub; 1994. p. 176-98.
 
Campbell TW. Hematology of psittacines. In: Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, editors. Schalm’s veterinary hematology. 6th ed. Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010. p. 968-76.
 
Campbell TW. Blood sample collection and preparation in birds. In: Exotic animal hematology and cytology. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell; 2015a. p. 165-72.
 
Campbell TW. Evaluation of the blood film. Clin Lab Med. 2015b Sep;35(3):703-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cll.2015.05.016
 
Campbell TW. Hematologic techniques in lower vertebrates. In: Exotic animal hematology and cytology. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell; 2015c. p. 377-81.
 
Campbell TW. Hematologic techniques in lower vertebrates. In: Exotic animal hematology and cytology. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell; 2015d. p. 199-205.
 
Chitty J. Basic techniques. In: Harcourt-Brown NH, Chitty J, editors. BSAVA manual of psittacine birds. 2nd ed. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2005. p. 50-9.
 
Clark P, Boardman WSJ, Raidal SR. Collection and handling blood samples. In: Atlas of clinical avian hematology. Oxford; Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009. p. 1-32.
 
Deem SL, Noss AJ, Cuellar RL, Karesh WB. Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in the Gran chaco, Bolivia. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005 Dec;36(4):598-605. https://doi.org/10.1638/04094.1
 
Doneley B. Clinical techniques. In: Avian medicine and surgery in practice: Companion and aviary birds. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2016a. p. 81-94.
 
Doneley B. Clinical techniques. In: Avian medicine and surgery in practice: Companion and aviary birds. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2016b. p. 117-44.
 
Fischer I, Christen C, Lutz H, Gerlach H, Hassig M, Hatt JM. Effects of two diets on the haematology, plasma chemistry and intestinal flora of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Vet Rec. 2006 Oct 7;159(15):480-4.
 
Fudge AM. Avian laboratory medicine. In: Laboratory medicine: Avian and exotic pets. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 2000a. p. 1-8.
 
Fudge AM. Laboratory reference ranges for selected avian, mammalian, and reptilian species. In: Laboratory medicine: Avian and exotic pets. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 2000b. p. 376-99.
 
Fudge AM. Laboratory reference ranges for selected avian, mammalian, and reptilian species. In: Laboratory medicine: Avian and exotic pets. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 2000c. p. 9-18.
 
Friedrichs KR, Harr KE, Freeman KP, Szladovits B, Walton RM, Barnhart KF, Blanco-Chavez J, American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology. ASVCP reference interval guidelines: Determination of de novo reference intervals in veterinary species and other related topics. Vet Clin Pathol. 2012 Dec;41(4):441-53.
 
Geffre A, Concordet D, Braun JP, Trumel C. Reference Value Advisor: A new freeware set of macroinstructions to calculate reference intervals with Microsoft Excel. Vet Clin Pathol. 2011 Mar;40(1):107-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00287.x
 
Marion CJ, Carpenter JW. Birds. In: Carpenter JW, editor. Exotic animal formulary. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2013. p. 190-468.
 
Rishniw M, Pion PD. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers. Vet Clin Pathol. 2016 Dec;45(4):604-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12398
 
Samour J. Diagnostic value of hematology. In: Harrison GJ, Lightfoot TL, editors. Clinical avian medicine. Palm Beach, FL : Spix; 2006. p. 587-610.
 
Tang F, Messinger S, Cray C. Use of an indirect sampling method to produce reference intervals for hematologic and biochemical analyses in psittaciform species. J Avian Med Surg. 2013 Sep;27(3):194-203. https://doi.org/10.1647/1082-6742-27.3.194
 
Toghyani M, Toghyani M, Gheisari A, Ghalamkari G, Mohammadrezaei M. Growth performance, serum biochemistry and blood hematology of broiler chicks fed different levels of black seed (Nigella sativa) and peppermint (Mentha piperita). Livestock Sci. 2010(1-3):173-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.01.021
 
Tully Jr TN. Birds. In: Tully Jr TN, Mitchell MA, editors. Manual of exotic pet practice. 1st ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2009. p. 250-98.
 
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti