Dental caries is amongst the most prevalent oral diseases in both humans and dogs. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus (mutans streptococci) are the major cariogenic bacteria isolated from dental caries. Since these bacteria generally show resistance to common antibiotics, natural products such as plant essential oils could be a good substitute. For this study, we aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Carum copticum essential oil against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty canine dental plaque samples were collected and the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the samples was confirmed using biochemical, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The resistance patterns of isolates were determined using a disc diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute protocol against the following antimicrobials: chloramphenicol, tetracycline, penicillin, erythromycin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, vancomycin and azithromycin. The antibacterial activities of Carum copticum essential oil were based on the disc diffusion method as well on a determination of the minimum inhibitory (MIC50) and minimum bactericidal concentration values. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were isolated in 8 (40%) and 2 (10%), respectively, of plaque samples. Most of these isolates were determined to display multidrug resistance patterns to the eight antibiotics evaluated. Screening of the antibacterial activity of the essential oil indicated that MIC50 and minimum bactericidal concentration values were 20 µg/ml and 80 µg/ml, respectively, and that the zone of inhibition in the disc diffusion method ranged from 2 to 5 mm for serial concentrations of the essential oil. Based on our results, we suggest that Carum copticum essential oil exerts antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus and may be a useful treatment for carious lesions with bacterial aetiologies.
Al-Mudallal NHA, Al-Jumaily EFA, Muhimen NAA, Al-Shaibany AW (2008): Isolation and identification of mutans Streptococci bacteria from human dental plaque samples. Journal of Al-Nahrain University 11, 98–105.
Allmuca Haxhi, Zalla Péllumb, Andoni Egon, Mazari Brunilda (2015): Prevalence of oral diseases in dogs in Tirana urban area. Indian Journal of Animal Research, , - https://doi.org/10.18805/ijar.9418
Amoroso P, De Avila FA, Gagliardi CMO (2003): Prevalence of different Streptococci species in the oral cavity of children and adolescents. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences 2, 164–168.
BEIGHTON D., RUSSELL R. R. B., HAYDAY H. (1981): The Isolation and Characterization of Streptococcus mutans Serotype h from Dental Plaque of Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Microbiology, 124, 271-279 https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-124-2-271
Fayaz M, Sivakumaar PK, Melvin Joe M (2014): Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of dental biofilm forming bacteria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 3, 46–50.
Franco e Franco Teresa Cristina Costa, Amoroso Patrícia, Marin José Moacir, Ávila Fernando Antonio de (2007): Detection of streptococcus mutans and streptococcus sobrinus in dental plaque samples from Brazilian preschool children by polymerase chain reaction. Brazilian Dental Journal, 18, 329-333 https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-64402007000400011
Galvão Lívia Câmara de Carvalho, Furletti Vivian Fernandes, Bersan Salete Meyre Fernandes, da Cunha Marcos Guilherme, Ruiz Ana Lúcia Tasca Góis, Carvalho João Ernesto de, Sartoratto Adilson, Rehder Vera Lúcia Garcia, Figueira Glyn Mara, Teixeira Duarte Marta Cristina, Ikegaki Masarahu, de Alencar Severino Matias, Rosalen Pedro Luiz (2012): Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus mutans
and their Antiproliferative Effects. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, 1-12 https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/751435
Golestannejad Z, Mohammadi E, Motamedi A, Gavanji SH, Fallah N, Bagherie SH, Farzane G, Safaripour M, Vally A, Doost Mohammadi M, Larki B, Bakhtari A (2015): Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of some herbal essential oils against Streptococcus mutans. Advanced Herbal Medicine 1, 1–8.
Goudarzi GHR, Saharkhiz MJ, Sattari M, Zomorodian K (2011): Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of Ajowan (Carum copticum Benth and Hook) essential oil. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 13, 203–208.
Jain Isha (2015): Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Six Indian Plant Extracts against Streptococcus Mutans. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH, , - https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/11526.5599
Jeet K, Devi N, Narender T, Sunil T, Shalta L, Raneev T (2012): Trachyspermum ammi (adjwan): a comprehensive review. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 3, 133–138.
Kabra P, Loomba K, Kabra SH, Majumdar DSP, Kumar N (2012): Medicinal plants in the treatment of dental caries. Asian Journal of Oral Health and Allied Sciences 2, 12–16.
Karikalan S, Mohankumar A (2016): Antibiogram of Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries patients. International Journal of Medical and Health Research 2, 79–83.
Kyllar M, Witter K (2005): Prevalence of dental disorders in pet dogs. Veterinarni Medicina 50, 496–505.
Mahmoudi R, Kosari M, Barati SH (2013a): Phytochemical and biological properties of Ferula sharifi essential oil. Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature 3, 331–338.
Mahmoudi R, Ehsani A, Tajik H, Pajohi Alamoti M (2013b): Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties of some medicinal plants from Iran. Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature 3, 310–322.
A. Maripandi (2011): Prevalence of dental caries bacterial pathogens and evaluation of inhibitory concentration effect on different tooth pastes against Streptococcus spp. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5, - https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR11.040
Momtaz H, Rahimi E, Moshkelani (2012): Molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance genes in E. coli isolated from slaughtered commercial chickens in Iran. Veterinarni medicina 57, 193–197.
Percival SL, Knap JS, Williams DW, Heritage J, Brunton LA (eds) (2011): Biofilms and Veterinary Medicine. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 129–142.
Rabiey Soghra, Hosseini Hedayat, Rezaei Masoud (2014): Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45, 89-96 https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822014000100013
Rasheed Mohammed Uddin, Thajuddin Nooruddin, Ahamed Parveez, Teklemariam Zelalem, Jamil Kaiser (2014): ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN STRAINS OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM FOOD SOURCES. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 56, 341-346 https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652014000400012
Rawashdeh RY, Malkawi HI, Al-Hiyasat AS, Hammad MM (2008): A fast and sensitive molecular detection of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus from dental plaques. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences 1, 135–139.
Upadhyat RK, Dwivedi P, Ahmad SH (2010): Screening of antibacterial activity of six plant essential oils against pathogenic bacterial strains. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 2, 152–158.
Zambori C, Tirziu E, Nichita I, Cumpanasoiu C, Gros RV, Seres M, Mladin B, Mot D (2012): Biofilm implication in oral diseases of dogs and cats. Animal Science and Biotechnologies 45, 208–2012.
Zomorodian Kamiar, Ghadiri Pooria, Saharkhiz Mohammad Jamal, Moein Mohammad Reza, Mehriar Peiman, Bahrani Farideh, Golzar Tahereh, Pakshir Keyvan, Fani Mohammad Mehdi (2015): Antimicrobial Activity of Seven Essential Oils From Iranian Aromatic Plants Against Common Causes of Oral Infections. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 8, - https://doi.org/10.5812/jjm.17766