Serum proteins and their diagnostic utility in veterinary medicine: a review

https://doi.org/10.17221/19/2016-VETMEDCitation:Tothova C., Nagy O., Kovac G. (2016): Serum proteins and their diagnostic utility in veterinary medicine: a review. Veterinarni Medicina, 61: 475-496.
download PDF
The evaluation of serum proteins and their electrophoretic pattern is a well-established laboratory method in the diagnosis of many diseases in humans, which has replaced the biochemical determination of the concentrations of albumin and the ratio of albumin to globulins. The measurement of serum proteins may be an important diagnostic tool for the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of various diseases and pathological processes. The results of serum protein electrophoresis can be one of the most useful diagnostic aids in a wide spectrum of diseases, including infectious and inflammatory diseases, renal or gastrointestinal disorders, immunodeficiency states, as well as paraproteinaemias caused by lymphoid or plasma cell neoplasia. Although many studies have been carried out to determine the usefulness of the determination of serum proteins and their electrophoretic pattern in various disease conditions and disorders also in animals, serum protein evaluation is still a relatively little-used diagnostic tool in veterinary medicine. In this article, methods of serum protein determination, their diagnostic utility in animal care practice and their different patterns in dysproteinaemias and paraproteinaemias are reviewed.
References:
ABATE O., ZANATTA R., MALISANO T., DOTTA U. (2000): Canine Serum Protein Patterns Using High-Resolution Electrophoresis (HRE). The Veterinary Journal, 159, 154-160  https://doi.org/10.1053/tvjl.1999.0407
 
Ahmed Farid E. (2009): Sample preparation and fractionation for proteome analysis and cancer biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry. Journal of Separation Science, , NA-NA  https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200800622
 
Akdogan Kaymaz A, Bakirel U, Gonul R, Tan H, Vurusaner C (1999): Serum protein electrophoresis in dogs with intestinal parasites. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 23, 457–459.
 
Alberghina D., Casella S., Vazzana I., Ferrantelli V., Giannetto C., Piccione G. (2010): ORIGINAL RESEARCH: Analysis of serum proteins in clinically healthy goats (Capra hircus) using agarose gel electrophoresis. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 39, 317-321  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2010.00226.x
 
Alberghina D., Giannetto C., Vazzana I., Ferrantelli V., Piccione G. (2011): Reference Intervals for Total Protein Concentration, Serum Protein Fractions, and Albumin/Globulin Ratios in Clinically Healthy Dairy Cows. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23, 111-114  https://doi.org/10.1177/104063871102300119
 
Aldred AR, Schreiber G (1993): The negative acute phase protein. In: Mackiewicz I, Kushner I, Baumann H (eds): Acute Phase Proteins. Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Clinical Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 21–37.
 
Anderson N. L. (): The Human Plasma Proteome: History, Character, and Diagnostic Prospects. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, 1, 845-867  https://doi.org/10.1074/mcp.R200007-MCP200
 
Apaydin B, Dede S (2010): Electrophoretic profile of serum protein fractions from sheep naturally infected with Babesia ovis. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 161, 57–60.
 
Azim W, Azim S, Ahmed K, Shafi H, Rafi T, Luqman M (2004): Diagnostic significance of serum protein electrophoresis. Biomedica 20, 40–44.
 
BABA Kenji, ITAMOTO Kazuhito, AMIMOTO Akiteru, KITAGAWA Kozue, HIRAOKA Hiroko, MIZUNO Takuya, SATO Hiroshi, OKUDA Masaru (2012): Ehrlichia canis Infection in Two Dogs that Emigrated from Endemic Areas. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 74, 775-778  https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.11-0401
 
Baker RJ, Valli VEO (1988): Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analysis of feline serum proteins. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 52, 308–314.
 
Beck FK, Rosenthal TC (2002): Prealbumin: a marker for nutritional evaluation. American Family Physician 65, 1575–1578.
 
Blum J. W. (2006): Nutritional physiology of neonatal calves*. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 90, 1-11  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00614.x
 
Bossuyt X (2006): Advances in serum protein electrophoresis. Advances in Clinical Chemistry 42, 43–80.
 
Boyer RF (ed.) (2000): Modern Experimental Biochemistry. 3rd edn. Addison Wesley Longman Inc., California. 480 pp.
 
Brackeen G., Dover J., Long C. (1989): Serum albumin. Differences in assay specificity. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 4, 203-205  https://doi.org/10.1177/0115426589004006203
 
Bradford Marion M. (1976): A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
 
Briscoe Jeleen A., Rosenthal Karen L., Shofer Frances S. (2010): Selected Complete Blood Cell Count and Plasma Protein Electrophoresis Parameters in Pet Psittacine Birds Evaluated for Illness. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 24, 131-137  https://doi.org/10.1647/2007-047.1
 
Brodzki Piotr, Kostro Krzysztof, Krakowski Leszek, Marczuk Jan (2015): Inflammatory cytokine and acute phase protein concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis in the late postpartum period. Veterinary Research Communications, 39, 143-149  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-015-9635-4
 
Brown JS, Nabity MB, Brock R (2010): Comparison of urine sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with renal histological findings and clinicopathologic data in dogs with renal diseases. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 3, 556.
 
Burtis CA, Ashwood ER (eds) (2001): Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. 5th edn. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 1091 pp.
 
Camacho Angel Tomas, Guitian Francisco Javier, Pallas Estrella, Gestal Juan Jesus, Olmeda Sonia, Goethert Heidi, Telford Sam, Spielman Andrew (2005): Serum protein response and renal failure in canine Babesia annae infection. Veterinary Research, 36, 713-722  https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2005026
 
Camus M. S., Krimer P. M., LeRoy B. E., Almy F. S. (): Evaluation of the Positive Predictive Value of Serum Protein Electrophoresis Beta-Gamma Bridging for Hepatic Disease in Three Domestic Animal Species. Veterinary Pathology, 47, 1064-1070  https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985810375946
 
Cer�n Jose Joaquin, Mart�nez-Subiela Silvia (2004): An automated spectrophotometric method for measuring canine ceruloplasmin in serum. Veterinary Research, 35, 671-679  https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2004046
 
Ceron JJ, Caldin M, Martinez-Subiela S (2010): Electrophoresis and acute phase protein measurement. In: Douglas J, Weiss K, Wardrop J (eds): Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Ames. 1157–1161.
 
Chhabra Seema, Saikia Biman, Minz RanjanaWalker, Bansal Frainey (2013): Bisalbuminemia: A rarely encountered protein anomaly. Journal of Laboratory Physicians, 5, 145-  https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2727.119869
 
Chiaradia Elisabetta, Avellini Luca, Tartaglia Micaela, Gaiti Alberto, Just Ingo, Scoppetta Fausto, Czentnar Zoltan, Pich Andreas (2012): Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins. BMC Veterinary Research, 8, 66-  https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-8-66
 
Chrisman Cheryl L. (1992): Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 22, 781-810  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-5616(92)50077-8
 
Cooper Edward S., Wellman Maxey L., Carsillo Mary E. (2009): Hyperalbuminemia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in a dog. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 38, 516-520  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2009.00153.x
 
Cray C (1997): Plasma protein electrophoresis: An update. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians. 209–212.
 
Cray C, Tatum LM (1998): Applications of protein electrophoresis in avian diagnostics. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 12, 4–10.
 
Crisman Mark V., Kent Scarratt W., Zimmerman Kurt L. (2008): Blood Proteins and Inflammation in the Horse. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 24, 285-297  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2008.03.004
 
Crivellente Federica, Bonato Monica, Cristofori Patrizia (2008): Analysis of mouse, rat, dog, marmoset, and human serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis: comparison with agarose gel electrophoresis. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 37, 73-78  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2008.00008.x
 
Cunningham-Rundles Charlotte, Knight Adina Kay (2007): Common variable immune deficiency: reviews, continued puzzles, and a new registry. Immunologic Research, 38, 78-86  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-007-0024-0
 
Cyrillo FC, Leal ML do R, Benesi FJ, Della Libera AMM de P (2006): Dynamics of serum proteins during the estrous cycle of goats bred in Brazil and naturally infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Revista Arquivos do Instituto Biologico 73, 41–44.
 
Oseas da Silva Marcelo Anselmo, Zezzi Arruda Marco Aurélio (2006): Mechanization of the Bradford reaction for the spectrophotometric determination of total proteins. Analytical Biochemistry, 351, 155-157  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2005.12.033
 
der Velden Monique G.M. de Sain-van, Rabelink Ton J., Reijngoud Dirk-Jan, Gadellaa Mireille M., Voorbij Hieronymus A.M., Stellaard Frans, Kaysen George A. (1998): Plasma alpha2 macroglobulin is increased in nephrotic patients as a result of increased synthesis alone. Kidney International, 54, 530-535  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00018.x
 
Diogenes Pollastry Vinicius A, Suassuna Ana Carla Diogenes, Ahid Silvia Maria Mendes, Blanco Benito Soto- (2010): Serum Protein Electrophoretic Profile of Goats Infected with Haemonchus contortus. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9, 1603-1606  https://doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2010.1603.1606
 
Dispenzieri Angela, Gertz Morie A., Therneau Terry M., Kyle Robert A. (2001): Retrospective cohort study of 148 patients with polyclonal gammopathy. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76, 476-487  https://doi.org/10.4065/76.5.476
 
Dobrovolskaia E., Gam A., Slater J. E. (2006): Competition enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) can be a sensitive method for the specific detection of small quantities of allergen in a complex mixture. Clinical <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&amp;"/> Experimental Allergy, 36, 525-530  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02466.x
 
Don Burl R., Kaysen George (2004): POOR NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND INFLAMMATION: Serum Albumin: Relationship to Inflammation and Nutrition. Seminars in Dialysis, 17, 432-437  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0894-0959.2004.17603.x
 
Doumas Basil T., Peters Theodore (1997): Serum and urine albumin: a progress report on their measurement and clinical significance. Clinica Chimica Acta, 258, 3-20  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-8981(96)06446-7
 
Doumas BT, Bayse DD, Carter RJ, Peters Jr T, Schaffer R (1981): A candidate reference method for determination of total protein in serum. I. Development and validation. Clinical Chemistry 27, 1642–1650.
 
Eckersall PD (2008): Proteins, proteomics, and the dysproteinemias. In: Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML (eds): Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 6th edn. Elsevier Academic Press, California. 117–155.
 
Eckersall P.D., Bell R. (2010): Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. The Veterinary Journal, 185, 23-27  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.04.009
 
Eckersall P. D., Duthie S., Safi S., Moffatt D., Horadagoda N. U., Doyle S., Parton R., Bennett D., Fitzpatrick J. L. (1999): An automated biochemical assay for haptoglobin: Prevention of interference from albumin. Comparative Haematology International, 9, 117-124  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02600369
 
Edwards David F., Parker John W., Wilkinson J. Erby, Helman R. Gayman (1993): Plasma Cell Myeloma in the Horse. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 7, 169-176  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.1993.tb03182.x
 
Ejaz A. Ahsan, Krishna Murli, Wasiluk Andrew, Knight Janice D. (2004): Bisalbuminemia in chronic kidney disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, 8, 270-273  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10157-004-0291-1
 
Ernst Orna, Zor Tsaffrir (2010): Linearization of the Bradford Protein Assay. Journal of Visualized Experiments, , -  https://doi.org/10.3791/1918
 
Errico Giorgia, Giordano Alessia, Paltrinieri Saverio (2012): Diagnostic accuracy of electrophoretic analysis of native or defribrinated plasma using serum as a reference sample. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 41, 529-540  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2012.00462.x
 
Esmaeilnejad B., Tavassoli M., Asri-Rezaei S., Dalir-Naghadeh B., Pourseyed S. H. (2014): Evaluation of serum total protein concentration and protein fractions in sheep naturally infected with Babesia ovis. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 23, 151-155  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-012-1587-2
 
Evans EW, Duncan JR (2003): Proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In: Latimer KW, Mahaffey EA, Prasse KW (eds): Duncan and Prasse’s Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Ames. 162–192.
 
Evans T. W. (2002): Review article: albumin as a drug-biological effects of albumin unrelated to oncotic pressure. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 16, 6-11  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.16.s5.2.x
 
Facchini Roberto Vailati, Bertazzolo Walter, Zuliani Davide, Bonfanti Ugo, Caldin Marco, Avallone Giancarlo, Roccabianca Paola (2010): Detection of biclonal gammopathy by capillary zone electrophoresis in a cat and a dog with plasma cell neoplasia. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 39, 440-446  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2010.00259.x
 
Fayos Manena, Couto C. Guillermo, Iazbik María Cristina, Wellman Maxey L. (2005): Serum protein electrophoresis in retired racing Greyhounds. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 34, 397-400  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2005.tb00068.x
 
Fazio F., Assenza A., Tosto F., Casella S., Piccione G., Caola G. (2011): Training and haematochemical profile in Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds: A longitudinal study. Livestock Science, 141, 221-226  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.06.005
 
Fernández S.Y., Jesus E.E.V., Paule B.J.A., Uzêda R.S., Almeida M.A.O., Guimarães J.E. (2006): Proteinograma de caprinos da raça Pardo-Alpina infectados naturalmente por parasitos gastrintestinais. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 58, -  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352006000200019
 
Firkin Frank (1997): Diagnostic Tests: Interpretation of biochemical tests for iron deficiency: diagnostic difficulties related to limitations of individual tests. Australian Prescriber, 20, 74-76  https://doi.org/10.18773/austprescr.1997.063
 
Friedrichs W.E., Navarijoashbaugh A.L., Bowman B.H., Yang F. (1995): Expression and Inflammatory Regulation of Haptoglobin Gene in Adipocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 209, 250-256  https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1995.1496
 
Epstein Franklin H., Gabay Cem, Kushner Irving (1999): Acute-Phase Proteins and Other Systemic Responses to Inflammation. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 448-454  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199902113400607
 
Gama Fernanda Gomes Velasque, Santana Aureo Evangelista, Filho Eugênio de Campos, Nogueira Cláudia Aparecida da Silva (2007): Agarose gel electrophoresis of cerebrospinal fluid proteins of dogs after sample concentration using a membrane microconcentrator technique. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 36, 85-88  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2007.tb00187.x
 
Gan SD, Patel KR (2013): Enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 133, e12.
 
George Jeanne W. (2001): The Usefulness and Limitations of Hand-held Refractometers in Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: An Historical and Technical Review. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 30, 201-210  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2001.tb00432.x
 
George Jeanne W., O'Neill Sharron L. (2001): Comparison of Refractometer and Biuret Methods for Total Protein Measurement in Body Cavity Fluids. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 30, 16-18  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2001.tb00250.x
 
Gerou-Ferriani Magda, McBrearty Alix R., Burchmore Richard J., Jayawardena Kamburapola G.I., Eckersall P. David, Morris Joanna S. (2011): Agarose gel serum protein electrophoresis in cats with and without lymphoma and preliminary results of tandem mass fingerprinting analysis. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 40, 159-173  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00310.x
 
Giordano Alessia, Paltrinieri Saverio (2010): Interpretation of capillary zone electrophoresis compared with cellulose acetate and agarose gel electrophoresis: reference intervals and diagnostic efficiency in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 39, 464-473  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2010.00255.x
 
Giori L., Tricomi F. M., Zatelli A., Roura X., Paltrinieri S. (): High-resolution gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis on urine samples for qualitative analysis of proteinuria in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23, 682-690  https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638711407900
 
Gornall AG, Bardawill CJ, David MN (1949): Determination of serum proteins by means of the Biuret reaction. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 177, 751–766.
 
Grauer G. F. (2005): Canine glomerulonephritis: new thoughts on proteinuria and treatment. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 46, 469-478  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2005.tb00275.x
 
Green SA, Jenkins SJ, Clark PA (1982): A comparison of chemical and electrophoretic methods of serum protein determinations in clinically normal domestic animals of various ages. The Cornell Veterinarian 72, 416–426.
 
Grünberg W., Donkin S.S., Constable P.D. (2011): Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 727-745  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3230
 
Gundasheva D (2015): Electrophoretic analysis of serum proteins in strenuously trained horses revaccinated against equine herpes virus 4/1 and equine influenza virus. Veterinarija i Zootechnika 69, 18–25.
 
Gupta Aradhana, Stockham Steven L. (2014): Negative interference of icteric serum on a bichromatic biuret total protein assay. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 43, 422-427  https://doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12154
 
Gupta Shilpi, Ahern Kathleen, Nakhl Fadi, Forte Frank (2011): Clinical Usefulness of Haptoglobin Levels to Evaluate Hemolysis in Recently Transfused Patients. Advances in Hematology, 2011, 1-4  https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/389854
 
Hamilton J.A., Benson M.D. (2001): Transthyretin: a review from a structural perspective. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 58, 1491-1521  https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00000791
 
Hammon H.M., Schiessler G., Nussbaum A., Blum J.W. (2002): Feed Intake Patterns, Growth Performance, and Metabolic and Endocrine Traits in Calves Fed Unlimited Amounts of Colostrum and Milk by Automate, Starting in the Neonatal Period. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 3352-3362  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74423-8
 
Hankins Judy (2006): The Role of Albumin in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance. Journal of Infusion Nursing, 29, 260-265  https://doi.org/10.1097/00129804-200609000-00004
 
Harris R. I., Kohn J. (1974): The pre-albumin fraction: A useful parameter in the interpretation of routine protein electrophoresis. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 27, 986-989  https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.27.12.986
 
Harrus Shimon, Waner Trevor, Avidar Yaakov, Bogin Eitan, Peh Huo-cheng, Bark Hylton (1996): Serum protein alterations in canine ehrlichiosis. Veterinary Parasitology, 66, 241-249  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(96)01013-8
 
Hogan Ian, Doherty Michael, Fagan John, Kennedy Emer, Conneely Muireann, Brady Paula, Ryan Clare, Lorenz Ingrid (2015): Comparison of rapid laboratory tests for failure of passive transfer in the bovine. Irish Veterinary Journal, 68, -  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13620-015-0047-0
 
Ingenbleek Y, Young V (1994): Transthyretin (Prealbumin) in Health and Disease: Nutritional Implications. Annual Review of Nutrition, 14, 495-533  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.14.070194.002431
 
Issaq Haleem J., Conrads Thomas P., Janini George M., Veenstra Timothy D. (2002): Methods for fractionation, separation and profiling of proteins and peptides. ELECTROPHORESIS, 23, 3048-3061  https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2683(200209)23:17<3048::AID-ELPS3048>3.0.CO;2-L
 
Jackson David, Elsawa Sherine (2015): Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Production by Normal and Disease-Associated Plasma Cells. Biomolecules, 5, 20-40  https://doi.org/10.3390/biom5010020
 
Jacobs RM, Valli VE, Wilkie BN (1980): Serum electrophoresis and immunoglobulin concentrations in cows with lymphoma. American Journal of Veterinary Research 41, 1942–1946.
 
Jaillardon Laetitia, Fournel-Fleury Corinne (2011): Waldenström's macroglobulinemia in a dog with a bleeding diathesis. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 40, 351-355  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00341.x
 
Jain Sachin, Gautam Vidhi, Naseem Sania (2011): Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 3, 118-  https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.76489
 
Janicki Bogdan, Kochowicz Anna, Buzała Mateusz, Krumrych Wiesław (2013): Variability of Selected Biochemical Parameters in Young Stallions During the 100-day Performance Test. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 33, 1136-1141  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2013.04.017
 
Janků Lenka, Pavlata Leoš, Mišurová Ľubica, Filípek Jaroslav, Pechová Alena, Dvořák Rudolf (2011): Levels of protein fractions in blood serum of periparturient goats. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 80, 185-190  https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201180020185
 
Johns JL (2015): Alterations in blood proteins. In: Smith BP (ed.): Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th edn. Elsevier, St Louis. 386–392.
 
Johnson AM, Merlini G, Sheldon J, Ichibara K (2007): Clinical indications for plasma protein assay: transthyretin (prealbumin) in inflammation and malnutrition. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 45, 419–426.
 
Joven J, Cliville X, Camps J, Espinel E, Simo J, Vilella E, Oliver A (1997): Plasma protein abnormalities in nephritic syndrome: effect on plasma colloid osmotic pressure and viscosity. Clinical Chemistry 43, 1223–1231.
 
Kaneko JJ (1997): Serum proteins and the dysproteinemias. In: Kaneko JJ (ed.): Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Academic Presss, London. 117–138.
 
Karcher RA, Nuttall KL (2001): Electrophoresis. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER (eds): Tietz Fundamentals in Clinical Chemistry. 5th edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 121–132.
 
Keay G., Doxey D. L. (1981): Species characteristics of serum proteins demonstrated after agarose gel electrophoresis. Veterinary Research Communications, 5, 263-270  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02214992
 
Keay G., Doxey D. L. (1981): A comparison of the serum protein electrophoretic patterns of young and adult animals. Veterinary Research Communications, 5, 271-276  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02214993
 
Kennedy Sandy (2001): Proteomic profiling from human samples: the body fluid alternative. Toxicology Letters, 120, 379-384  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00269-7
 
KENT JOYCE E. (1987): Specific serum protein changes associated with primary and secondary Strongylus vulgaris infections in pony yearlings. Equine Veterinary Journal, 19, 133-137  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1987.tb02608.x
 
KENT JOYCE E., ROBERTS C. A. (1990): Serum protein changes in four horses with monoclonal gammopathy. Equine Veterinary Journal, 22, 373-376  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1990.tb04295.x
 
Keren DF (ed.) (2003): Protein Electrophoresis in Clinical Diagnosis. Edward Arnold Ltd., London. 63–108.
 
Keren DF, Alexanian R, Goeken JA, Gorevic PD, Kyle RA, Tomar RH (1999): Guidelines for clinical and laboratory evaluation of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 123, 106–107.
 
Kessler M.A., Meinitzer A., Wolfbeis O.S. (1997): Albumin Blue 580 Fluorescence Assay for Albumin. Analytical Biochemistry, 248, 180-182  https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1997.2113
 
Killip S, Bennett JM, Chambers MD (2007): Iron deficiency anemia. American Family Physician 75, 671–678.
 
Kobayashi S., Okamura N., Kamoi K., Sugita O. (1995): Bisalbumin (Fast and Slow Type) Induced by Human Pancreatic Juice. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry: An international journal of biochemistry and laboratory medicine, 32, 63-67  https://doi.org/10.1177/000456329503200105
 
Kodner C (2009): Nephrotic syndrome in adults: Diagnosis and management. American Family Physician 80, 1129–1134.
 
Kohn J. (1957): A cellulose acetate supporting medium for zone electrophoresis. Clinica Chimica Acta, 2, 297-303  https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(57)90005-0
 
Krimer PM (2011): Generating and interpreting test results: test validity, quality control, reference values, and basic epidemiology. In: Latimer KS (ed.): Duncan and Prasse’s Vaterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology. 5th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester. 365–382.
 
Kyle RA (1994): The monoclonal gammopathies. Clinical Chemistry 40, 2154–2161.
 
Kyle Robert A., Therneau Terry M., Rajkumar S. Vincent, Larson Dirk R., Plevak Matthew F., Offord Janice R., Dispenzieri Angela, Katzmann Jerry A., Melton L. Joseph (2006): Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 1362-1369  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa054494
 
Lee June Sung (2012): Albumin for End-Stage Liver Disease. The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 27, 13-  https://doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2012.27.1.13
 
Lehmann R., Koch M., Voelter W., Häring H. U., Liebich H. M. (1997): Routine serum protein analysis by capillary zone electrophoresis: Clinical evaluation. Chromatographia, 45, 390-395  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02505590
 
Lien TC, Wang JH (1995): Rapid differentiation of pathogenesis in patients with pulmonary edema by protein measurement with refractometer. Chinese Medical Journal (Taipei) 56, 298–304.
 
Lin AV (2015): Direct ELISA. Methods in Molecular Biology 1318, 61–67.
 
Lobetti R.G., Möhr A.J., Dippenaar T., Myburgh E. (2000): A preliminary study on the serum protein response in canine babesiosis : research communication. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 71, -  https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v71i1.675
 
Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951): Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193, 265–275.
 
Lumeij J.T., de Bruijne J.J., Kwant M.M. (2007): Comparison of different methods of measuring protein and albumin in pigeon sera. Avian Pathology, 19, 255-261  https://doi.org/10.1080/03079459008418678
 
Luraschi Paola, Dea Elisabetta Dalla, Franzini Carlo (2003): Capillary Zone Electrophoresis of Serum Proteins: Effects of Changed Analytical Conditions. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 41, -  https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2003.118
 
Maciel RM, dos Anjos Lopes ST, Mazzanti CMA, Costa MM, Salbego FZ, Martins DB, Franca RT, Teixeira LV, Zanette RA (2012): A hematologic and electrophoretic study in puppies vaccinated against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae 40, 1011–1016.
 
Mackiewicz A (1997): Acute phase proteins and transformed cells. International Review of Cytology 170, 225–300.
 
MAIR T. S., CRIPPS P. J., RICKETTS S. W. (1993): Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum protein electrophoresis in horses with chronic diarrhoea. Equine Veterinary Journal, 25, 324-326  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1993.tb02973.x
 
Mallard B.A., Dekkers J.C., Ireland M.J., Leslie K.E., Sharif S., Lacey Vankampen C., Wagter L., Wilkie B.N. (1998): Alteration in Immune Responsiveness During the Peripartum Period and Its Ramification on Dairy Cow and Calf Health. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 585-595  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75612-7
 
Mariani M, Luzzi E, Proietti D, Mancianti S, Casini D, Costantino P, van Gageldonk P, Berbers G (1998): A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring the levels of serum antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 5, 667–674.
 
MATTHEWS A. G. (1982): Serum protein electrophoresis in horses and ponies. Equine Veterinary Journal, 14, 322-324  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1982.tb02443.x
 
McEwan A.D., Fisher E.W., Selman I.E., Penhale W.J. (1970): A turbidity test for the estimation of immune globulin levels in neonatal calf serum. Clinica Chimica Acta, 27, 155-163  https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(70)90390-6
 
McGrotty Y., Knottenbelt C. (2002): Significance of plasma protein abnormalities in dogs and cats. In Practice, 24, 512-517  https://doi.org/10.1136/inpract.24.9.512
 
Medway W. (1979): Bisalbuminemia in a bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Experientia, 35, 1158-1159  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01963260
 
Melmed GM (2009): Light chain amyloidosis: a case presentation and review. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 22, 280–283.
 
Meyer DJ, Harvey JW (eds) (2004): Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Interpretation and Diagnosis. 3rd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia. 156–168.
 
Morris D, Johnston JK (2002): Alterations in blood proteins. In: Smith BP (ed.): Large Animal Internal Medicine. 3rd edn. Mosby, St Louis. 426–433.
 
Nagy Oskar, Tóthová Csilla, Nagyová Veronika, Kováč Gabriel, Pošivák Ján (2014): Changes in the serum protein electrophoretic pattern in lambs during the first month of life. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 83, 187-193  https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201483030187
 
Nagy Oskar, Tóthová Csilla, Nagyová Veronika, Kováč Gabriel (2015): Comparison of serum protein electrophoretic pattern in cows and small ruminants. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 84, 187-195  https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201584020187
 
O’Connell TX, Horite TJ, Kasravi B (2005): Understanding and interpreting serum protein electrophoresis. American Family Physician 71, 105–112.
 
Ochs Hans D., Edvard Smith C. I. (1996): X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia A Clinical and Molecular Analysis. Medicine, 75, 287-299  https://doi.org/10.1097/00005792-199611000-00001
 
Okutucu Burcu, Dınçer Ayşşe, Habib Ömer, Zıhnıoglu Figen (2007): Comparison of five methods for determination of total plasma protein concentration. Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 70, 709-711  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbbm.2007.05.009
 
Orro Toomas, Jacobsen Stine, LePage Jean-Philippe, Niewold Theo, Alasuutari Sakari, Soveri Timo (2008): Temporal changes in serum concentrations of acute phase proteins in newborn dairy calves. The Veterinary Journal, 176, 182-187  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.02.010
 
Pagana KD, Pagana TJ (eds) (2006): Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 4th edn. Mosby Elsevier, St Louis. 1267 pp.
 
Paltrinieri Saverio, Giordano Alessia, Villani Marta, Manfrin Margherita, Panzani Sara, Veronesi Maria Cristina (2008): Influence of age and foaling on plasma protein electrophoresis and serum amyloid A and their possible role as markers of equine neonatal septicaemia. The Veterinary Journal, 176, 393-396  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.05.018
 
Perille Amy L., Matus Robert E. (1991): Canine Ehrlichiosis in Six Dogs with Persistently Increased Antibody Titers. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 5, 195-198  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.1991.tb00947.x
 
Perryman LE, McGuire TC, Banks KL (1983): Animal model of human disease. Infantile X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Agammaglobulinemia in horses. American Journal of Pathology 111, 125–127.
 
Petersen Henrik Hagbard, Nielsen Jens Peter, Heegaard Peter Mikael Helweg (2004): Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry. Veterinary Research, 35, 163-187  https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2004002
 
Petersen John R, Okorodudu Anthony O, Mohammad Amin, Payne Deborah A (2003): Capillary electrophoresis and its application in the clinical laboratory. Clinica Chimica Acta, 330, 1-30  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-8981(03)00006-8
 
Pérez Jesús M., González Francisco J., Granados José E., Pérez M. Carmen, Fandos Paulino, Soriguer Ramón C., Serrano Emmanuel (2003): HEMATOLOGIC AND BIOCHEMICAL REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR SPANISH IBEX. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 39, 209-215  https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-39.1.209
 
Pfeiffer NE, McGuire TC (1977): A sodium sulfite-precipitation test for the assessment of colostral immunoglobulin transfer to calves. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 170, 809–811.
 
Piccione G., Casella S., Giannetto C., Monteverde V., Ferrantelli V. (2009): Exercise-induced Modifications on Haematochemical and Electrophoretic Parameters During 1600 and 2000 Meters Trot Races in Standardbred Horses. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 35, 131-135  https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2009.9707002
 
Piccione Giuseppe, Messina Vanessa, Schembari Angelo, Casella Stefania, Giannetto Claudia, Alberghina Daniela (2011): Pattern of serum protein fractions in dairy cows during different stages of gestation and lactation. Journal of Dairy Research, 78, 421-425  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029911000562
 
Piccione G, Messina V, Alberghina D, Giannetto C, Caselle S, Assenza A (2012a): Seasonal variations in serum protein fractions of dairy cows during different physiological phases. Comparative Clinical Pathology 21, 1439–1443.
 
Piccione G, Alberghina D, Marafioti S, Giannetto C, Casella S, Assanza A, Fazio F (2012b): Electrophoretic serum protein fraction profile during the different physiological phases in Comisana ewes. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47, 591–595.
 
Pieper Rembert, Gatlin Christine L., Makusky Anthony J., Russo Paul S., Schatz Courtney R., Miller Stanton S., Su Qin, McGrath Andrew M., Estock Marla A., Parmar Prashanth P., Zhao Ming, Huang Shih-Ting, Zhou Jeff, Wang Fang, Esquer-Blasco Ricardo, Anderson N. Leigh, Taylor John, Steiner Sandra (): The human serum proteome: Display of nearly 3700 chromatographically separated protein spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels and identification of 325 distinct proteins. PROTEOMICS, 3, 1345-1364  https://doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200300449
 
Prinsen Berthil H.C.M.T, de Sain-van der Velden Monique G.M (2004): Albumin turnover: experimental approach and its application in health and renal diseases. Clinica Chimica Acta, 347, 1-14  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cccn.2004.04.005
 
Revillard J. P. (1980): Significance of β 2 -Microglobulin in Liver Diseases. Vox Sanguinis, 38, 339-342  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1423-0410.1980.tb04503.x
 
Riond Barbara, Wenger-Riggenbach Bettina, Hofmann-Lehmann Regina, Lutz Hans (2009): Serum protein concentrations from clinically healthy horses determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 38, 73-77  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2008.00100.x
 
Romdane MN, Romdhane SB, Jemli MH, Metoui K (1992): Electrophoretic profiles of serum proteins in dogs leishmaniasis (in French). Revue de Medecine Veterinarie 143, 753–755.
 
Rossi Silvia, Bertazzolo Walter, Paltrinieri Saverio, Giordano Alessia (2008): Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of canine plasma after fibrinogen precipitation by ethanol. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 37, 422-428  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2008.00078.x
 
Roubies N., Panousis N., Fytianou A., Katsoulos P. D., Giadinis N., Karatzias H. (2006): Effects of Age and Reproductive Stage on Certain Serum Biochemical Parameters of Chios Sheep Under Greek Rearing Conditions. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, 53, 277-281  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.2006.00832.x
 
Sapan CV, Lundblad RL, Price NC (1999): Colorimetric protein assay techniques. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 29, 99–108.
 
Schrader M, Schulz-Knappe P (2001): Peptidomics technologies for human body fluids. Trends in Biotechnology 19, S55–S60.
 
Schroeder HW, Cavacini L (2010): Structure and function of immunoglobulins. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 125, S41–S52.
 
Sedlinská M., Krejčí J., Vyskočil M. (2005): Evaluation of Field Methods for Determining Immunoglobulin in Sucking Foals. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 74, 51-58  https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200574010051
 
Sheldon I. M., Noakes D. E., Rycroft A., Dobson H. (2001): Acute phase protein responses to uterine bacterial contamination in caftle after calving. Veterinary Record, 148, 172-175  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.148.6.172
 
Shetty JeevanK, Prakash Mungli, Gopalakrishna Kodyalamoole (2007): Bisalbuminemia in an adult male with <i>Alzheimer's disease</i>. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 61, 356-  https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5359.32683
 
Slev Patricia R., Williams Belinda G., Harville Terry O., Ashwood Edward R., Bornhorst Joshua A. (2008): Efficacy of the Detection of the α 1 -Antitrypsin “Z” Deficiency Variant by Routine Serum Protein Electrophoresis. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 130, 568-572  https://doi.org/10.1309/JWEWE4QRQKJ5EJEU
 
Spano JS, Whitesides JF, Pedersoli WM, Kristal LM (1988): Comparative albumin determinations in ducks, chickens, and turkeys by electrophoretic and dye-binding methods. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49, 325–326.
 
Stockham SL, Scott MA (2002): Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology. Iowa State Press, Ames. 251–276.
 
Swindle MM, Sistino JJ (2015): Anesthesia, analgesia, and perioperative care. In: Swindle MM, Smith AC (eds): Swine in the Laboratory: Surgery, Anesthesia, Imaging, and Experimental Techniques. 3rd edn. CRC Press, New York. 39–88.
 
Switzer R, Garrity L (eds) (1999): Experimental biochemistry. 3rd edn. WH Freemand and Company, New York. 451 pp.
 
Tappin S. W., Taylor S. S., Tasker S., Dodkin S. J., Papasouliotis K., Murphy K. F. (2011): Serum protein electrophoresis in 147 dogs. Veterinary Record, 168, 456-456  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.d88
 
Tecles F., Spiranelli E., Bonfanti U., Cerón J.J., Paltrinieri S. (2005): Preliminary Studies of Serum Acute-Phase Protein Concentrations in Hematologic and Neoplastic Diseases of the Dog. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 19, 865-870  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2005.tb02779.x
 
Thomas LA, Brown SA (1992): Relationship between colloid osmotic pressure and plasma protein concentration in cattle, horses, dogs, and cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 53, 2241–2244.
 
Tiselius Arne (1937): Electrophoresis of serum globulin. Biochemical Journal, 31, 1464-1477  https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0311464
 
Tothova C, Nagy O, Seidel H, Kovac G (2013a): Serum protein electrophoretic pattern in clinically healthy calves and cows determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Comparative Clinical Pathology 22, 15–20.
 
Tothova C, Nagy O, Kovac G (2013b): The serum protein electrophoretic pattern and acute phase protein concentrations in calves with chronic respiratory diseases. Acta Veterinaria Beograd 63, 473–486.
 
Tothova C, Nagy O, Kovac G (2014): Acute phase proteins and their use in the diagnosis of diseases in ruminants: a review. Veterinarni Medicina 59, 163–180.
 
Tothova C, Nagy O, Kovac G, Nagyova V (2016a): Changes in the concentrations of serum proteins in calves during the first month of life. Journal of Applied Animal Research 44, 338–346.
 
Tothova C, Nagy O, Nagyova V, Kovac G (2016b): The concentrations of selected blood serum proteins in calves during the first three months of life. Acta Veterinaria Brno 85, 33–40.
 
Turba F., Enenkel H. J. (1950): Elektrophorese von Proteinen in Filterpapier. Die Naturwissenschaften, 37, 93-93  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00631958
 
Tymchak LL (2010): Amino acids and proteins. In: Bishop ML, Fody EP, Schoeff LE (eds): Clinical Chemistry: Techniques, Principles, Correlations. 6th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 223–265.
 
Vavricka Stephan R., Burri Emanuel, Beglinger Christoph, Degen Lukas, Manz Michael (2009): Serum Protein Electrophoresis: An Underused but Very Useful Test. Digestion, 79, 203-210  https://doi.org/10.1159/000212077
 
Vreugdenhil ACE, Dentener MA, Snoek AMP, Greve JWM, Buurman WA (1999): Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and serum amyloid A secretion by human intestinal epithelial cells during the acute phase response. Journal of Immunology 163, 2792–2798.
 
Watanabe Akiharu, Matsuzaki Shohei, Moriwaki Hisataka, Suzuki Kazuyuki, Nishiguchi Shuhei (2004): Problems in serum albumin measurement and clinical significance of albumin microheterogeneity in cirrhotics. Nutrition, 20, 351-357  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2003.12.006
 
Weaver Dusty M., Tyler Jeff W., VanMetre David C., Hostetler Douglas E., Barrington George M. (2000): Passive Transfer of Colostral Immunoglobulins in Calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 14, 569-577  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2000.tb02278.x
 
Webb Julie, Chary Parag, Northrup Nicole, Almy Frederic (2008): Erythrophagocytic multiple myeloma in a cat. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 37, 302-307  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2008.00064.x
 
Weiss B. M., Abadie J., Verma P., Howard R. S., Kuehl W. M. (2009): A monoclonal gammopathy precedes multiple myeloma in most patients. Blood, 113, 5418-5422  https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-12-195008
 
Werner LL, Reavill DR (1999): The diagnostic utility of serum protein electrophoresis. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 2, 651–662.
 
Wilson K, Walker J (eds) (2000): Practical Biochemistry: Principles and Techniques. 5th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 784 pp.
 
WOOLF ALAN, NADLER CHARLES F., KRADEL DAVID C. (1973): SERUM PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS IN BIGHORN SHEEP WITH CHRONIC PNEUMONIA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 9, 7-11  https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-9.1.7
 
Wrotnowski C (1998): The future of plasma proteins. Genetic Engineering News 18, 14.
 
Yamada Osamu, Tamura Kyoichi, Yagihara Hiroko, Isotani Mayu, Azakami Mari, Sawada Satoko, Ono Kenichiro, Washizu Tsukimi, Bonkobara Makoto (2016): Light-Chain Multiple Myeloma in a Cat. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 19, 443-447  https://doi.org/10.1177/104063870701900421
 
YOSHIDA Yasuyuki (1991): Electrophoretic studies on serum proteins in cows with traumatic pericarditis.. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 53, 5-11  https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.53.5
 
Yuki Masashi, Itoh Hiroshi, Takase Katsuaki (2010): Serum α-1-acid glycoprotein concentration in clinically healthy puppies and adult dogs and in dogs with various diseases. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 39, 65-71  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2009.00181.x
 
Zaia Dimas A. M., Zaia Cássia Thaïs B. V., Lichtig Jaim (1998): Determinação de proteínas totais via espectrofometria: vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos existentes. Química Nova, 21, 787-793  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40421998000600020
 
Zaia Dimas Augusto Morozin, Marques Fábio Rangel, Zaia Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira (2005): Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 48, 385-388  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132005000300008
 
Zini Eric, Bonfanti Ugo, Zatelli Andrea (2004): Diagnostic relevance of qualitative proteinuria evaluated by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and comparison with renal histologic findings in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65, 964-971  https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2004.65.964
 
Zor Tsaffrir, Selinger Zvi (1996): Linearization of the Bradford Protein Assay Increases Its Sensitivity: Theoretical and Experimental Studies. Analytical Biochemistry, 236, 302-308  https://doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0171
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti