Factors influencing reproductive efficiency and pregnancy in Pura Raza Española mares

https://doi.org/10.17221/205/2015-VETMEDCitation:Akourki A., Echegaray A., Falceto M.V., Mitjana O. (2017): Factors influencing reproductive efficiency and pregnancy in Pura Raza Española mares. Veterinarni Medicina, 62: 186-191.
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The aim of this study was to analyse ovarian activity and pregnancy in 140 Pura Raza Espanola mares over a period of two consecutive years. The data were analysed using SPSS software to evaluate the effects of age, category of mares and season on pre-ovulatory follicle size, ovulation rate, interval from foaling to pregnancy, gestation length, incidence of twin pregnancies and pregnancy losses. The results showed that follicular diameter was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in fillies (3-year-old) and maiden mares than in older and multiparous mares. Within the group of animals treated with gonadotropin hormone hCG, 87.23% ovulated 48 h following administration. Length of gestation varied from 305 to 356 days and all gestation pregnancies of less than 305 days resulted in a non-viable foal. In addition, foaling season affected (P < 0.05) the post-partum conception interval and the length of gestation, which were shorter and longer in the winter foaling, respectively. Regarding the other parameters, mares of this stud exhibited relatively very low rates of double ovulations, twin pregnancies and pregnancy losses. We conclude that age and category of mares and foaling season influence fertility and foaling rates by affecting pre-ovulatory follicle size, pregnancy loss and gestation length.

References:
Akourki A, Echegaray A, Mitjana O (2013): Seminal characteristics in Spanish purebred stallions: A retrospective study. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 33, 649−652.
 
Berezowski C.J, Stitch K.L, Wendt K.M, Vest D.J (2004): Clinical comparison of 3 products available to hasten ovulation in cyclic mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 24, 231-233  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2004.05.007
 
Blanchard Terry L, Brinsko Steven P, Rigby Sherri L (2002): Effects of deslorelin or hCG administration on reproductive performance in first postpartum estrus mares. Theriogenology, 58, 165-169  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(02)00912-3
 
Cox T.J., Squires E.L., Carnevale E.M. (2009): Effect of Follicle Size and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on Ovulation Induction and Embryo Recovery in the Mare. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 29, 213-218  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2009.02.004
 
Davies Morel MCG, Newcombe JR (2008): The efficacy of different hCG dose rates and the effect of hCG treatment on ovarian activity: Ovulation, multiple ovulation, pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, synchrony of multiple ovulation; in the mare. Animal Reproduction Science 109, 189−199.
 
Davies Morel M.C.G, Newcombe J.R, Holland S.J (2002): Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare. Animal Reproduction Science, 74, 175-185  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(02)00171-9
 
Davies Morel MCG, Newcombe JR, Swindlehurst JC (2005): The effect of age on multiple ovulation rates, multiple pregnancy rates and embryonic vesicle diameter in the mare. Theriogenology 63, 2482−2493.
 
Demirci E (1988): Length of gestation period in purebred Arab mares and correlation between age and gestation length. The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kafkas 35, 69−79.
 
European Horse Network (2010): Key figures 2010. Available at http://www.europeanhorsenetwork.eu/the-horse-industry/employment-impact/ (Accessed August 1, 2015).
 
Ginther O.J. (1983): Effect of reproductive status on twinning and on side of ovulation and embryo attachment in mares. Theriogenology, 20, 383-395  https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(83)90199-1
 
Ginther OJ, Pierson RA (1989): Regular and irregular characteristics of ovulation and the interovulatory interval in mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 9, 4−12.
 
Ginther O.J., Douglas R.H., Lawrence Julie R. (1982): Twinning in mares: A survey of veterinarians and analyses of theriogenology records. Theriogenology, 18, 333-347  https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(82)90011-5
 
Ginther O.J., Bergfelt D.R., Leith G.S., Scraba S.T. (1985): Embryonic loss in mares: Incidence and ultrasonic morphology. Theriogenology, 24, 73-86  https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(85)90213-4
 
Heidler B., Aurich J.E., Pohl W., Aurich Chr. (2004): Body weight of mares and foals, estrous cycles and plasma glucose concentration in lactating and non-lactating Lipizzaner mares. Theriogenology, 61, 883-893  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(03)00279-6
 
Hevia ML, Quiles AJ, Fuentes F, Gonzalo C (1994): Reproductive performance of Thoroughbred mares in Spain. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 14, 89−92.
 
McCue P.M., Magee C., Gee E.K. (2007): Comparison of Compounded Deslorelin and hCG for Induction of Ovulation in Mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 27, 58-61  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2006.12.003
 
Merkt H., Jöchle W. (1993): Abortions and twin pregnancies in thoroughbreds: Rate of occurrence, treatments and prevention. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 13, 690-694  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(06)81569-8
 
Nagy P, Huszenicza Gy, Juhász J, Kulcsár M, Solti L, Reiczigel J, Abaváry K (1998): Factors influencing ovarian activity and sexual behavior of postpartum mares under farm conditions. Theriogenology, 50, 1109-1119  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(98)00212-X
 
Nath LC, Anderson GA, McKinnon AO (2010): Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in north-east Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal, 88, 169-175  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2010.00565.x
 
Pérez C.C, Rodrı́guez I, Mota J, Dorado J, Hidalgo M, Felipe M, Sanz J (2003): Gestation length in Carthusian Spanishbred mares. Livestock Production Science, 82, 181-187  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(03)00027-7
 
Rossdale PD (1976): A clinician’s view of prematurity and dysmaturity in Thoroughbred foals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 69, 631−632.
 
Schulman M. L., Kass P. H., Becker A., Merwe B. V. d. (): A predictive model for reproductive performance following abortion in Thoroughbred mares. Veterinary Record, 172, 44-44  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.100670
 
Serres C, Gomez-Cuetara C, Gutierrez-Cepeda L, Redondo M (2010): Effect of hCG administration at different times of the day on the interval to ovulation in mares. Animal Reproduction Science 121S, 74–75.
 
Sharma Sumeet, Morel M.C.G. Davies, Dhaliwal G.S. (2010): Factors affecting the incidence of postpartum oestrus, ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Thoroughbred mares bred at foal heat under Indian subtropical conditions. Theriogenology, 74, 90-99  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.01.018
 
Valera M., Blesa F., Santos R. Dos, Molina A. (2006): Genetic study of gestation length in andalusian and arabian mares. Animal Reproduction Science, 95, 75-96  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.09.008
 
Veronesi M.C., Battocchio M., Faustini M., Gandini M., Cairoli F. (2003): Relationship between pharmacological induction of estrous and/or ovulation and twin pregnancy in the Thoroughbred mares. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 25, 133-140  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0739-7240(03)00052-3
 
Akourki A, Echegaray A, Mitjana O (2013): Seminal characteristics in Spanish purebred stallions: A retrospective study. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 33, 649−652.
 
Berezowski C.J, Stitch K.L, Wendt K.M, Vest D.J (2004): Clinical comparison of 3 products available to hasten ovulation in cyclic mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 24, 231-233  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2004.05.007
 
Blanchard Terry L, Brinsko Steven P, Rigby Sherri L (2002): Effects of deslorelin or hCG administration on reproductive performance in first postpartum estrus mares. Theriogenology, 58, 165-169  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(02)00912-3
 
Cox T.J., Squires E.L., Carnevale E.M. (2009): Effect of Follicle Size and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on Ovulation Induction and Embryo Recovery in the Mare. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 29, 213-218  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2009.02.004
 
Davies Morel MCG, Newcombe JR (2008): The efficacy of different hCG dose rates and the effect of hCG treatment on ovarian activity: Ovulation, multiple ovulation, pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, synchrony of multiple ovulation; in the mare. Animal Reproduction Science 109, 189−199.
 
Davies Morel M.C.G, Newcombe J.R, Holland S.J (2002): Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare. Animal Reproduction Science, 74, 175-185  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(02)00171-9
 
Davies Morel MCG, Newcombe JR, Swindlehurst JC (2005): The effect of age on multiple ovulation rates, multiple pregnancy rates and embryonic vesicle diameter in the mare. Theriogenology 63, 2482−2493.
 
Demirci E (1988): Length of gestation period in purebred Arab mares and correlation between age and gestation length. The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kafkas 35, 69−79.
 
European Horse Network (2010): Key figures 2010. Available at http://www.europeanhorsenetwork.eu/the-horse-industry/employment-impact/ (Accessed August 1, 2015).
 
Ginther O.J. (1983): Effect of reproductive status on twinning and on side of ovulation and embryo attachment in mares. Theriogenology, 20, 383-395  https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(83)90199-1
 
Ginther OJ, Pierson RA (1989): Regular and irregular characteristics of ovulation and the interovulatory interval in mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 9, 4−12.
 
Ginther O.J., Douglas R.H., Lawrence Julie R. (1982): Twinning in mares: A survey of veterinarians and analyses of theriogenology records. Theriogenology, 18, 333-347  https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(82)90011-5
 
Ginther O.J., Bergfelt D.R., Leith G.S., Scraba S.T. (1985): Embryonic loss in mares: Incidence and ultrasonic morphology. Theriogenology, 24, 73-86  https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(85)90213-4
 
Heidler B., Aurich J.E., Pohl W., Aurich Chr. (2004): Body weight of mares and foals, estrous cycles and plasma glucose concentration in lactating and non-lactating Lipizzaner mares. Theriogenology, 61, 883-893  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(03)00279-6
 
Hevia ML, Quiles AJ, Fuentes F, Gonzalo C (1994): Reproductive performance of Thoroughbred mares in Spain. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 14, 89−92.
 
McCue P.M., Magee C., Gee E.K. (2007): Comparison of Compounded Deslorelin and hCG for Induction of Ovulation in Mares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 27, 58-61  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2006.12.003
 
Merkt H., Jöchle W. (1993): Abortions and twin pregnancies in thoroughbreds: Rate of occurrence, treatments and prevention. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 13, 690-694  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(06)81569-8
 
Nagy P, Huszenicza Gy, Juhász J, Kulcsár M, Solti L, Reiczigel J, Abaváry K (1998): Factors influencing ovarian activity and sexual behavior of postpartum mares under farm conditions. Theriogenology, 50, 1109-1119  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(98)00212-X
 
Nath LC, Anderson GA, McKinnon AO (2010): Reproductive efficiency of Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in north-east Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal, 88, 169-175  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2010.00565.x
 
Pérez C.C, Rodrı́guez I, Mota J, Dorado J, Hidalgo M, Felipe M, Sanz J (2003): Gestation length in Carthusian Spanishbred mares. Livestock Production Science, 82, 181-187  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(03)00027-7
 
Rossdale PD (1976): A clinician’s view of prematurity and dysmaturity in Thoroughbred foals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 69, 631−632.
 
Schulman M. L., Kass P. H., Becker A., Merwe B. V. d. (): A predictive model for reproductive performance following abortion in Thoroughbred mares. Veterinary Record, 172, 44-44  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.100670
 
Serres C, Gomez-Cuetara C, Gutierrez-Cepeda L, Redondo M (2010): Effect of hCG administration at different times of the day on the interval to ovulation in mares. Animal Reproduction Science 121S, 74–75.
 
Sharma Sumeet, Morel M.C.G. Davies, Dhaliwal G.S. (2010): Factors affecting the incidence of postpartum oestrus, ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Thoroughbred mares bred at foal heat under Indian subtropical conditions. Theriogenology, 74, 90-99  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.01.018
 
Valera M., Blesa F., Santos R. Dos, Molina A. (2006): Genetic study of gestation length in andalusian and arabian mares. Animal Reproduction Science, 95, 75-96  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.09.008
 
Veronesi M.C., Battocchio M., Faustini M., Gandini M., Cairoli F. (2003): Relationship between pharmacological induction of estrous and/or ovulation and twin pregnancy in the Thoroughbred mares. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 25, 133-140  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0739-7240(03)00052-3
 
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