Traumatic brain injury in dogs and cats: a systematic review Santos LO, Caldas GG, Santos CRO, Junior DB (2018): Traumatic brain injury in dogs and cats: a systematic review. Veterinarni Medicina, 63: 345-357.
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Traumatic brain injury occurs frequently in dogs and cats due to motor vehicle accidents, falls and crush injuries. The primary lesion occurs at the time of injury and causes direct, irreversible damage to the brain parenchyma and vasculature. Secondary lesions occur in the minutes following the trauma due to a combination of physical and biochemical changes that lead to intracranial hypertension. Therefore, knowing the pathophysiology of the cranioencephalic trauma is essential for treatment directed at minimising secondary damage. The approach to the patient affected by traumatic brain injury is based on the ABCD of trauma, guided by the neurological examination with the aid of imaging exams and adequate therapeutic measures. The treatment of patients with cranioencephalic trauma is still in many ways controversial. For that reason, this literature review aims to address the main points regarding the pathophysiology of this disease and to describe the clinical and surgical therapeutic options currently available.

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