Co-infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Anaplasma marginale in a dairy cattle herd may lead to acute bovine anaplasmosis

https://doi.org/10.17221/252/2015-VETMEDCitation:Szabara A., Majer J., Ozsvari L., Jakab C., Baumgartner W. (2016): Co-infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Anaplasma marginale in a dairy cattle herd may lead to acute bovine anaplasmosis. Veterinarni Medicina, 61: 504-515.
download PDF
This report describes an acute exacerbation of subclinical anaplasmosis manifesting itself in clinical signs in a large number of animals after infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The simultaneous transmission of BVDV and Anaplasma was unintended and most likely the result of a vaccination operation in a large Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle herd in Hungary. From Day 35 after the first vaccination, a total of 33 cows developed fever, depression, general weakness, lack of appetite, a sudden drop of milk production, anaemia, icterus, and tachypnoea on exercise. In addition, a total of seven abortions and three stillbirths occurred. Between Days 30 and 35 after the second vaccination four cows showed clinical signs typical of anaplasmosis, and two stillbirths occurred. The presence of Anaplasma marginale infection was demonstrated by haematological, biochemical, PCR and haemocytological examinations of blood samples collected from animals showing clinical signs as well as by necropsy. To assess the prevalence of infection in the herd, a specified number of animals belonging to different age groups were subjected to serological tests. The rate of seropositive animals was substantially higher (50%) in the older (3- to 4-year-old and more than 4-year-old) age groups than in the younger cows (10–30%). This study has demonstrated for the first time that if bovine animals susceptible to both A. marginale and BVDV are infected by the two pathogens roughly at the same time, the immunosuppressive effect of BVDV will support the progression of A. marginale infection and manifestation of the disease resulting in acute clinical signs.
References:
Aubry P., Geale D. W. (2011): A Review of Bovine Anaplasmosis. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 58, 1-30  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2010.01173.x
 
Baumgartner W., Schlerka G., Fumicz M., Stöger J., Awad-Masalmeh M., Schuller W., Weber P. (1992): Seroprevalence Survey for Anaplasma marginale-Infection of Austrian Cattle. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B, 39, 97-104  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.1992.tb01143.x
 
Baumgartner W., Stoger J., Marktl W. (1993): Demonstration of the oral path of infection with Anaplasma marginale in calves. Veterinary Record, 133, 64-66  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.133.3.64
 
Birdane FM, Sevinc F, Derinbay O (2006): Anaplasma marginale infections in dairy cattle: clinical disease with high seroprevalence. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 50, 467–470.
 
Blanchard Patricia C., Ridpath Julia F., Walker Jennifer B., Hietala Sharon K. (2010): An Outbreak of Late-Term Abortions, Premature Births, and Congenital Deformities Associated with a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Subtype b that Induces Thrombocytopenia. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 22, 128-131  https://doi.org/10.1177/104063871002200127
 
BROWN GK, MARTIN AR, ROBERTS TK, AITKEN RJ (2001): Detection of Ehrlichia platys in dogs in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 79, 554-558  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2001.tb10747.x
 
Gamlen T., Richards K. H., Mankouri J., Hudson L., McCauley J., Harris M., Macdonald A. (2009): Expression of the NS3 protease of cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus results in the induction of apoptosis but does not block activation of the beta interferon promoter. Journal of General Virology, 91, 133-144  https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.016170-0
 
Hamers C, Lecomte C, Kulcsar G, Lambot M, Pastoret P.-P (1998): Persistently infected cattle stabilise bovine viral diarrhea virus leading to herd specific strains. Veterinary Microbiology, 61, 177-182  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(98)00185-0
 
Hornok Sándor, Elek Vilmos, de la Fuente José, Naranjo Victoria, Farkas Róbert, Majoros Gábor, Földvári Gábor (2007): First serological and molecular evidence on the endemicity of Anaplasma ovis and A. marginale in Hungary. Veterinary Microbiology, 122, 316-322  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.024
 
Hotter H, Edelhofer R, Baumgartner W (1995): Mischinfektion mit Anaplasma marginale und Babesia divergens bei einem Rind. Tieraerztliche Umschau 50, 280–283.
 
Houe H (1995): Epidemiology of bovine virus diarrhoea. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 11, 521–547.
 
Kocan K. M., de la Fuente J., Guglielmone A. A., Melendez R. D. (2003): Antigens and Alternatives for Control of Anaplasma marginale Infection in Cattle. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 16, 698-712  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.16.4.698-712.2003
 
Kocan KM, de la Fuente J, Step DL, Blouin EF, Coetzee JF, Simpson KM, Genova SG, Boileau MJ (2010): Current challenges of the management and epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis. Bovine Practitioners 44, 93–102.
 
Lanyon Sasha R., Hill Fraser I., Reichel Michael P., Brownlie Joe (2014): Bovine viral diarrhoea: Pathogenesis and diagnosis. The Veterinary Journal, 199, 201-209  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.07.024
 
Nettleton Peter (2013): Bovine viral diarrhoea virus: biology, diagnosis and control. Veterinary Record, 172, 447-448  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.f2526
 
Pedrera M., Gómez-Villamandos J. C., Molina V., Risalde M. A., Rodríguez-Sánchez B., Sánchez-Cordón P. J. (2012): Quantification and Determination of Spread Mechanisms of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus in Blood and Tissues from Colostrum-Deprived Calves During an Experimental Acute Infection Induced by a Non-Cytopathic Genotype 1 Strain. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 59, 377-384  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01281.x
 
Pedrera M., Gómez-Villamandos J.C., Risalde M.A., Molina V., Sánchez-Cordón P.J. (2012): Characterization of Apoptosis Pathways (Intrinsic and Extrinsic) in Lymphoid Tissues of Calves Inoculated with Non-cytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Genotype-1. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 146, 30-39  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2011.03.015
 
Pypers A. R., Holm D. E., Williams J. H. (2011): Fatal congenital anaplasmosis associated with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in a crossbred calf. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 82, -  https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v82i3.57
 
Ridpath Julia F., Neill John D., Peterhans Ernst (2007): Impact of variation in acute virulence of BVDV1 strains on design of better vaccine efficacy challenge models. Vaccine, 25, 8058-8066  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.09.014
 
Rymaszewska A, Grenda S (2008): Bacteria of the genus Anaplasma – characteristics of Anaplasma and their vectors: a review. Veterinarni Medicina 53, 573–584.
 
Schlerka G, Baumgartner W (1991): Anaplasma marginale-infection in cattle – a review (in German). Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 78, 426–432.
 
Wandera JG, Munyua WK (1971): Severe anaplasmosis in a 4-day old calf. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa 19, 219–221.
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti