Development of an oral vaccine using recombinant viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus glycoproteins produced in tobacco T., Kang B., Park S., Kim T. (2019): Development of an oral vaccine using recombinant viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus glycoproteins produced in tobacco. Veterinarni Medicina, 64: 456-461.
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The viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) causes high mortality in many marine and freshwater fish species, resulting in heavy economic losses in fish farming. Previously, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fused recombinant viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus glycoproteins (rec-VHSV-GPs) have been successfully expressed in tobacco, Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we evaluated the potential of rec-VHSV-GPs as an oral vaccine against a live viral challenge. After immunisation of mice and fish (olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceous) with those antigenic proteins in a feed additive form, the antibody titres were increased statistically, especially in the primed groups (P < 0.0001) in both the mouse and fish. After the viral challenge under low water temperature culture conditions (below 18 °C), the immunised fish were protected successfully against the challenge, showing a significantly lower mortality rate (P < 0.05). This result suggests that this plant-based immunisation system could induce an effective immune response. It could be used as a candidate to develop an oral vaccine for fish.

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