Epigallocatechin gallate: a review

https://doi.org/10.17221/31/2018-VETMEDCitation:Bartosikova L., Necas J. (2018): Epigallocatechin gallate: a review. Veterinarni Medicina, 63: 443-467.
download PDF

Epigallocatechin gallate is the major component of the polyphenolic fraction of green tea and is responsible for most of the therapeutic benefits of green tea consumption. A number of preclinical in vivo and in vitro experiments as well as clinical trials have shown a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties of polyphenolic compounds such as anti-oxidative, antimicrobial, anti-allergic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, chemoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects. Epigallocatechin gallate controls high blood pressure, decreases blood cholesterol and body fat and decreases the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Further research should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to more clearly elucidate its mechanisms of action and the potential for its use in medicine.

References:
Ahmed S, Pakozdi A, Koch AE (2006): Regulation of interleukin-1beta-induced chemokine production and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activation by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis & Rheumatology 54, 2393–2401.
 
Anderson R. F. (): Green tea catechins partially protect DNA from middle dotOH radical-induced strand breaks and base damage through fast chemical repair of DNA radicals. Carcinogenesis, 22, 1189-1193 https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/22.8.1189
 
Anandh Babu Pon, Liu Dongmin (2008): Green Tea Catechins and Cardiovascular Health: An Update. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 15, 1840-1850 https://doi.org/10.2174/092986708785132979
 
Babu Pon Velayutham Anandh, Liu Dongmin, Gilbert Elizabeth R. (2013): Recent advances in understanding the anti-diabetic actions of dietary flavonoids. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 24, 1777-1789 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.06.003
 
Bai Xiao-chun, Lu Di, Bai Jie, Zheng Hang, Ke Zi-yong, Li Xiao-ming, Luo Shen-qiu (2004): Oxidative stress inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of bone cells by ERK and NF-κB. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 314, 197-207 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.12.073
 
Banfi Giuseppe, Iorio Eugenio L., Corsi Massimiliano M. (2008): Oxidative stress, free radicals and bone remodeling. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 46, - https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2008.302
 
Basu Samar, Michaëlsson Karl, Olofsson Helena, Johansson Sara, Melhus Håkan (2001): Association between Oxidative Stress and Bone Mineral Density. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 288, 275-279 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.2001.5747
 
Baumann Dietmar, Adler Sven, Hamburger Matthias (2001): A Simple Isolation Method for the Major Catechins in Green Tea Using High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography. Journal of Natural Products, 64, 353-355 https://doi.org/10.1021/np0004395
 
Boehm Katja, Borrelli Francesca, Ernst Edzard, Habacher Gabi, Hung Shao Kang, Milazzo Stefania, Horneber Markus (): Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005004.pub2
 
Bonkovsky Herbert L. (2006): Hepatotoxicity Associated with Supplements Containing Chinese Green Tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Annals of Internal Medicine, 144, 68- https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-144-1-200601030-00020
 
Borzelleca JF (2004): A critical evaluation of the information and data submitted on the safety of EGCG, Epigallocatechin gallate (TEAVIGOTM). Available at www.teavigoinfo.com/pdf/medical-safety-opinion.pdf.
 
Boschmann M, Thielecke F (2007): The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 26, 389S–395S.
 
Britschgi Adrian, Simon Hans-Uwe, Tobler Andreas, Fey Martin F., Tschan Mario P. (2010): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces cell death in acute myeloid leukaemia cells and supports all- trans retinoic acid-induced neutrophil differentiation via death-associated protein kinase 2. British Journal of Haematology, 149, 55-64 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.08040.x
 
Bursill Christina A., Roach Paul D. (2006): Modulation of Cholesterol Metabolism by the Green Tea Polyphenol (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate in Cultured Human Liver (HepG2) Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 1621-1626 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051736o
 
Cai Erica P., Lin Jen-Kun (2009): Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) and Rutin Suppress the Glucotoxicity through Activating IRS2 and AMPK Signaling in Rat Pancreatic β Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 9817-9827 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf902618v
 
Cai Yi, He Shu-Qiao, Hong Hui-Qi, Cai Yue-Peng, Zhao Li, Zhang Mei (2015): High doses of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea induces cardiac fibrosis in mice. Biotechnology Letters, 37, 2371-2377 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-015-1926-x
 
Calland Noémie, Albecka Anna, Belouzard Sandrine, Wychowski Czeslaw, Duverlie Gilles, Descamps Véronique, Hober Didier, Dubuisson Jean, Rouillé Yves, Séron Karin (2012): (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is a new inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry. Hepatology, 55, 720-729 https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.24803
 
Camouse Melissa M., Domingo Diana Santo, Swain Freddie R., Conrad Edward P., Matsui Mary S., Maes Daniel, Declercq Lieve, Cooper Kevin D., Stevens Seth R., Baron Elma D. (2009): Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin. Experimental Dermatology, 18, 522-526 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00818.x
 
Chacko Sabu M, Thambi Priya T, Kuttan Ramadasan, Nishigaki Ikuo (2010): Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review. Chinese Medicine, 5, 13- https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8546-5-13
 
Chang Li-Kwan, Wei Ta-Tung, Chiu Ya-Fang, Tung Chao-Ping, Chuang Jian-Ying, Hung Shang-Kai, Li Ching, Liu Shih-Tung (2003): Inhibition of Epstein–Barr virus lytic cycle by (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 301, 1062-1068 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00067-6
 
Chen Chao, Qiu Hui, Gong Jian, Liu Qing, Xiao Han, Chen Xin-Wen, Sun Bin-Lian, Yang Rong-Ge (2012): (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the replication cycle of hepatitis C virus. Archives of Virology, 157, 1301-1312 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-012-1304-0
 
Chen L, Lee MJ, Li H, Yang CS (1997): Absorption, distribution and elimination of tea polyphenols in rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 25, 1045–1050.
 
Chow HH, Cai Y, Hakim IA, Crowell JA, Shahi F, Brooks CA, Dorr RT, Hara Y, Alberts DS (2003): Pharmacokinetics and Safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clinical Cancer Research 9, 3312–3319.
 
Clifford MN, van der Hooft JJJ, Crozier A (2013): Human studies on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of tea polyphenols. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98, 1619S–1630S.
 
Cooper Raymond, Morré D. James, Morré Dorothy M. (2005): Medicinal Benefits of Green Tea: Part I. Review of Noncancer Health Benefits. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11, 521-528 https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2005.11.521
 
Crowell JA, Swezey RR, Chow HHS, Hara Y (2005): The pharmacokinetics of EGCG: Preclinical and clinical studies. Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892. Available at www.ocha-festival.jp/archive/english/conference/ICOS2001/files/PROC/III-103.pdf.
 
Dalluge Joseph J, Nelson Bryant C (2000): Determination of tea catechins. Journal of Chromatography A, 881, 411-424 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00062-5
 
Das S, Tanwar J, Hameed S, Fatima Z (2014): Antimicrobial potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): a green tea polyphenol. Journal of Biochemical and Pharmacological Research 2, 167–174.
 
Deka Apranta, Vita Joseph A. (2011): Tea and cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological Research, 64, 136-145 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2011.03.009
 
Deng Yea-Tzy, Chang Tsai-Wen, Lee Ming-Shyue, Lin Jen-Kun (2012): Suppression of Free Fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance by Phytopolyphenols in C2C12 Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 1059-1066 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf204496f
 
Dong Zigang (2000): Effects of food factors on signal transduction pathways. BioFactors, 12, 17-28 https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.5520120104
 
Du Guang-Jian, Zhang Zhiyu, Wen Xiao-Dong, Yu Chunhao, Calway Tyler, Yuan Chun-Su, Wang Chong-Zhi (2012): Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Is the Most Effective Cancer Chemopreventive Polyphenol in Green Tea. Nutrients, 4, 1679-1691 https://doi.org/10.3390/nu4111679
 
Đudarić Luka, Fužinac-Smojver Ariana, Muhvić Damir, Giacometti Jasminka (2015): The role of polyphenols on bone metabolism in osteoporosis. Food Research International, 77, 290-298 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2015.10.017
 
Dueñas Sadornil Carmen, Fabregas Puigtió Silvia, Durández Rosa (): Hepatotoxicidad por Camelia sinensis. Medicina Clínica, 122, 677b-678 https://doi.org/10.1157/13061393
 
el Wafa Abu Y, Benavente AF, Talavera AF, Perez MR, Ramos-Clemente JI (2005): Acute hepatitis induced by Camellia sinensis (green tea). Anales de Medicina Interna 22, 298. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16145729.
 
Ellis D. (2002): Amphotericin B: spectrum and resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 49, 7-10 https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/49.suppl_1.7
 
Fassina Gianfranco, Buffa Anna, Benelli Roberto, Varnier Oliviero E., Noonan Douglas M., Albini Adriana (2002): Polyphenolic antioxidant (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea as a candidate anti-HIV agent. AIDS, 16, 939-941 https://doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200204120-00020
 
Fatokun Amos A., Stone Trevor W., Smith Robert A. (2008): Responses of differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells to reactive oxygen species. European Journal of Pharmacology, 587, 35-41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.03.024
 
Forester SC, Lambert JD (2011): Antioxidant effects of green tea. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 55, 844–854.
 
Frank Jan, George Trevor W., Lodge John K., Rodriguez-Mateos Ana M., Spencer Jeremy P. E., Minihane Anne Marie, Rimbach Gerald (2009): Daily Consumption of an Aqueous Green Tea Extract Supplement Does Not Impair Liver Function or Alter Cardiovascular Disease Risk Biomarkers in Healthy Men. The Journal of Nutrition, 139, 58-62 https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.096412
 
Fujiki H, Imai K, Nakachi K, Sueoka E, Watanabe T, Suganuma M (2015): Innovative strategy of cancer treatment with the combination of green tea catechins and anticancer compounds. Cancer Cell and Microenvironment 2, 1–7.
 
Galati Giuseppe, Lin Alison, Sultan Amira M., O'Brien Peter J. (2006): Cellular and in vivo hepatotoxicity caused by green tea phenolic acids and catechins. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 40, 570-580 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.09.014
 
Garcia-Moran S, Saez-Royuela F, Gento E, Lopez Morante A, Arias L (2004): Acute hepatitis associated with Camellia thea and Orthosiphon stamineus ingestion. Gastroenterology and Hepatology 27, 559–560.
 
Gradišar Helena, Pristovšek Primož, Plaper Andreja, Jerala Roman (2007): Green Tea Catechins Inhibit Bacterial DNA Gyrase by Interaction with Its ATP Binding Site. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 50, 264-271 https://doi.org/10.1021/jm060817o
 
Granja Andreia, Pinheiro Marina, Reis Salette (2016): Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanodelivery Systems for Cancer Therapy. Nutrients, 8, 307- https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050307
 
Green Charlotte J., Macrae Katherine, Fogarty Sarah, Hardie D. Grahame, Sakamoto Kei, Hundal Harinder S. (2011): Counter-modulation of fatty acid-induced pro-inflammatory nuclear factor κB signalling in rat skeletal muscle cells by AMP-activated protein kinase. Biochemical Journal, 435, 463-474 https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20101517
 
Grinberg Leonid N., Newmark Harold, Kitrossky Nahum, Rahamim Ezra, Chevion Mordechai, Rachmilewitz Eliezer A. (1997): Protective effects of tea polyphenols against oxidative damage to red blood cells. Biochemical Pharmacology, 54, 973-978 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-2952(97)00155-X
 
Gu Jian-Wei, Makey Kristina L, Tucker Kevan B, Chinchar Edmund, Mao Xiaowen, Pei Ivy, Thomas Emily Y, Miele Lucio (2013): EGCG, a major green tea catechin suppresses breast tumor angiogenesis and growth via inhibiting the activation of HIF-1α and NFκB, and VEGF expression. Vascular Cell, 5, 9- https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-824X-5-9
 
Guo Qiong, Zhao Baolu, Li Meifen, Shen Shengrong, Xin Wenjuan (1996): Studies on protective mechanisms of four components of green tea polyphenols against lipid peroxidation in synaptosomes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, 1304, 210-222 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-2760(96)00122-1
 
Gupta Sanjay, Ahmad Nihal, Nieminen Anna-Liisa, Mukhtar Hasan (2000): Growth Inhibition, Cell-Cycle Dysregulation, and Induction of Apoptosis by Green Tea Constituent (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate in Androgen-Sensitive and Androgen-Insensitive Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 164, 82-90 https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1999.8885
 
Hashimoto Ryoko, Yaita Maki, Tanaka Kyoko, Hara Yukihiko, Kojo Shosuke (2000): Inhibition of Radical Reaction of Apolipoprotein B-100 and α-Tocopherol in Human Plasma by Green Tea Catechins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 6380-6383 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000973i
 
Hayashi Kana, Takai Shinji, Matsushima-Nishiwaki Rie, Hanai Yoshiteru, Kato Kanefusa, Tokuda Haruhiko, Kozawa Osamu (2008): (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate reduces transforming growth factor β-stimulated HSP27 induction through the suppression of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase in osteoblasts. Life Sciences, 82, 1012-1017 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2008.02.017
 
He Wei (2011): Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits HBV DNA synthesis in a viral replication - inducible cell line. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 17, 1507- https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v17.i11.1507
 
Hirasawa M. (2004): Multiple effects of green tea catechin on the antifungal activity of antimycotics against Candida albicans. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 53, 225-229 https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkh046
 
Hirsova Petra, Kolouchova Gabriela, Dolezelova Eva, Cermanova Jolana, Hyspler Radomir, Kadova Zuzana, Micuda Stanislav (2012): Epigallocatechin gallate enhances biliary cholesterol secretion in healthy rats and lowers plasma and liver cholesterol in ethinylestradiol-treated rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 691, 38-45 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.06.034
 
Ho Yih, Lee Yueh-Lin, Hsu Kuang-Yang (1995): Determination of (+)-catechin in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detection. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 665, 383-389 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4347(94)00535-D
 
Hong Ji-Youn, Yon Jeyoung, Lee Jung-Seok, Lee In-Kyeong, Yang Cheryl, Kim Min-Soo, Choi Seong-Ho, Jung Ui-Won (2015): Effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the healing of extraction sockets with a periapical lesion: A pilot study in dogs. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 103, 727-734 https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.33238
 
Hooper Lee, Kroon Paul A, Rimm Eric B, Cohn Jeffrey S, Harvey Ian, Le Cornu Kathryn A, Ryder Jonathan J, Hall Wendy L, Cassidy Aedín (2008): Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88, 38-50 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/88.1.38
 
Horie Hideki, Mukai Toshihiro, Kohata Katsunori (1997): Simultaneous determination of qualitatively important components in green tea infusions using capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A, 758, 332-335 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00764-9
 
Hsu Chung-Hua, Tsai Tung-Hu, Kao Yung-Hsi, Hwang Kung-Chang, Tseng Ting-Yu, Chou Pesus (2008): Effect of green tea extract on obese women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition, 27, 363-370 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2008.03.007
 
HUANG YUHUI, KUMAZOE MOTOFUMI, BAE JAEHOON, YAMADA SHUHEI, TAKAI MIKA, HIDAKA SHIORI, YAMASHITA SHUYA, KIM YOONHEE, WON YEONGSEON, MURATA MOTOKI, TSUKAMOTO SHUNTARO, TACHIBANA HIROFUMI (2015): Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-O-gallate induces cell death by acid sphingomyelinase activation in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Oncology Reports, 34, 1162-1168 https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2015.4086
 
Imanishi Hisako, Sasaki YūF., Ohta Toshihiro, Watanabe Mie, Kato Tomoko, Shirasu Yasuhiko (1991): Tea tannin components modify the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations in mutagen-treated cultured mammalian cells and mice. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology, 259, 79-87 https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1218(91)90111-X
 
Imanishi Nobuko, Tuji Yumiko, Katada Yuko, Maruhashi Miyuki, Konosu Satoko, Mantani Naoki, Terasawa Katutoshi, Ochiai Hiroshi (2002): Additional Inhibitory Effect of Tea Extract on the Growth of Influenza A and B Viruses in MDCK Cells. Microbiology and Immunology, 46, 491-494 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2002.tb02724.x
 
Isbrucker RA, Bausch J, Edwards JA, Wolz E (2006c): Safety studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) preparations. Part 1: Genotoxicity. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44, 626–635.
 
Isbrucker RA, Edwards JA, Wolz E, Davidovich A, Bausch J (2006a): Safety studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) preparations. Part 2: Dermal, acute and short-term toxicity studies. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44, 636–650.
 
Isbrucker RA, Edwards JA, Wolz E, Davidovich A, Bausch J (2006b): Safety studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) preparations. Part 3: Teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44, 651–661.
 
JANJUA ROOHINA, MUNOZ CLAUDIA, GORELL EMILY, REHMUS WINGFIELD, EGBERT BARBARA, KERN DALE, CHANG ANNE LYNN S. (2009): A Two-Year, Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Green Tea Polyphenols on the Long-Term Clinical and Histologic Appearance of Photoaging Skin. Dermatologic Surgery, 35, 1057-1065 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2009.01183.x
 
Jimenez-Saenz Manuel, Martinez-Sanchez Carmen (2007): Green tea extracts and acute liver failure: The need for caution in their use and diagnostic assessment. Liver Transplantation, 13, 1067-1067 https://doi.org/10.1002/lt.21127
 
Kamon M, Zhao R, Sakamoto K (2009): Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate suppressed the differentiation of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Cell Biology International 34, 109–116.
 
KASHIMA Midori (1999): Effects of Catechins on Superoxide and Hydroxyl Radical.. CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, 47, 279-283 https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.47.279
 
Kawai Kazushige, Tsuno Nelson H, Kitayama Joji, Okaji Yurai, Yazawa Kentaro, Asakage Masahiro, Hori Nobukazu, Watanabe Toshiaki, Takahashi Koki, Nagawa Hirokazu (2003): Epigallocatechin gallate, the main component of tea polyphenol, binds to CD4 and interferes with gp120 binding. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 112, 951-957 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(03)02007-4
 
Kelly Melissa R., Geigerman Cissy M., Loo George (2001): Epigallocatechin gallate protects U937 cells against nitric oxide-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 81, 647-658 https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.1097
 
Khan Naghma, Afaq Farrukh, Mukhtar Hasan (2008): Cancer Chemoprevention Through Dietary Antioxidants: Progress and Promise. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 10, 475-510 https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2007.1740
 
Khan Naghma, Afaq Farrukh, Saleem Mohammad, Ahmad Nihal, Mukhtar Hasan (2006): Targeting Multiple Signaling Pathways by Green Tea Polyphenol (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate. Cancer Research, 66, 2500-2505 https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3636
 
Khan Sohail H. (2014): The use of green tea (<i>Camellia sinensis</i>) as a phytogenic substance in poultry diets. Onderstepoort J Vet Res, 81, - https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v81i1.706
 
Khandelwal Anuj, Hall Jessica A., Blagg Brian S. J. (2013): Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of EGCG Analogues, a Recently Identified Hsp90 Inhibitor. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 78, 7859-7884 https://doi.org/10.1021/jo401027r
 
Khurshid Zohaib, Zafar Muhammad S., Zohaib Sana, Najeeb Shariq, Naseem Mustafa (2016): Green Tea (): Chemistry and Oral Health. The Open Dentistry Journal, 10, 166-173 https://doi.org/10.2174/1874210601610010166
 
Kim DC, Lim JS (1999): Pharmacokinetic study of epigallocatechin gallate in rats. Journal of Korean Pharmaceutical Sciences 29, 179–184.
 
Kim HS, Quon MJ, Kim J (2014a): New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate. Redox Biology 2, 187–195.
 
Kim SJ, Amankwah E, Connors S, Park HY, Rincon M, Cornnell H, Chornokur G, Hashim AI, Choi J, Tsai YY, Engelman RW, Kumar N, Park JY (2014b): Safety and chemopreventive effect of Polyphenon E in preventing early and metastatic progression of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice. Cancer Prevention Research 7, 435–444.
 
Koh Seong-Ho, Kim Seung H., Kwon Hyugsung, Park Younjoo, Kim Ki Sok, Song Chi Won, Kim Juhan, Kim Myung-Ho, Yu Hyun-Jeung, Henkel Jenny S., Jung Hai Kwan (2003): Epigallocatechin gallate protects nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells from oxidative-radical-stress-induced apoptosis through its effect on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3. Molecular Brain Research, 118, 72-81 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.07.003
 
Kumazoe M, Kim Y, Bae J, Takai M, Murata M, Suemasu Y, Sugihara K, Yamashita S, Tsukamoto S, Huang Y, Nakahara K, Yamada K, Tachibana H (2013a): Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor acts as a potent agent sensitizing acute myeloid leukemia cells to 67-kDa laminin receptor-dependent apoptosis. FEBS Letters 587, 3052–3057.
 
Kumazoe M, Sugihara K, Tsukamoto S, Huang Y, Tsurudome Y, Suzuki T, Suemasu Y, Ueda N, Yamashita S, Kim Y, Yamada K, Tachibana H (2013b): 67-kDa laminin receptor increases cGMP to induce cancer-selective apoptosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 123, 787–799.
 
Kumazoe M, Tachibana H (2016): Anti-cancer effect of EGCG and its mechanisms. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 6, 70–78.
 
Kumazoe Motofumi, Tsukamoto Shuntaro, Lesnick Connie, Kay Neil E., Yamada Koji, Shanafelt Tait D., Tachibana Hirofumi (2015): Vardenafil, a clinically available phosphodiesterase inhibitor, potentiates the killing effect of EGCG on CLL cells. British Journal of Haematology, 168, 610-613 https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13135
 
Lambert Joshua D., Elias Ryan J. (2010): The antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of green tea polyphenols: A role in cancer prevention. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 501, 65-72 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2010.06.013
 
Lambert Joshua D., Kennett Mary J., Sang Shengmin, Reuhl Kenneth R., Ju Jihyeung, Yang Chung S. (2010): Hepatotoxicity of high oral dose (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 409-416 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.030
 
Lambert Joshua D., Sang Shengmin, Yang Chung S. (2007): Biotransformation of Green Tea Polyphenols and the Biological Activities of Those Metabolites. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 4, 819-825 https://doi.org/10.1021/mp700075m
 
Lambert JD, Yand CS (2003): Mechanisms of cancer prevention by tea constituents. Journal of Nutrition 133, 3262S–3267S.
 
Landis-Piwowar Kristin, Kuhn Deborah, Wan Sheng, Chen Di, Chan Tak, Dou Q. (2005): Evaluation of proteasome-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing potencies of novel (-)-EGCG analogs and their prodrugs. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, , - https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.15.4.735
 
Lecumberri Elena, Dupertuis Yves Marc, Miralbell Raymond, Pichard Claude (2013): Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as adjuvant in cancer therapy. Clinical Nutrition, 32, 894-903 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2013.03.008
 
Lee Kee-Myung, Yeo Marie, Choue Jung-Sun, Jin Joo-Hyun, Park Soo Jin, Cheong Jae-Youn, Lee Kwang Jae, Kim Jin-Hong, Hahm Ki-Baik (2004): Protective Mechanism of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate against Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Epithelial Cytotoxicity via the Blockage of TLR-4 Signaling. Helicobacter, 9, 632-642 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-4389.2004.00281.x
 
Lee MJ, Maliakal P, Chen L, Menq X, Bondoc FY, Prabhu S, Lambert G, Mohr S, Yanq CS (2002): Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans: Formation of different metabolites and individual variability. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 11, 1025–1032.
 
Lee MJ, Wang ZY, Li H, Chen L, Sun Y, Gobbo S, Balentine DA, Yanq CS (1995): Analysis of plasma and urinary tea polyphenols in human subjects. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 4, 393–399.
 
LEMIEUX KATHLEEN, KONRAD DANIEL, KLIP AMIRA, MARETTE ANDRÉ (2003): The AMP-activated protein kinase activator AICAR does not induce GLUT4 translocation to transverse tubules but stimulates glucose uptake and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases α and β in skeletal muscle. The FASEB Journal, 17, 1658-1665 https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.02-1125com
 
Li Yuan-Hong, Wu Yan, Wei Hua-Chen, Xu Yuan-Yuan, Jia Li-Li, Chen Jing, Yang Xue-Song, Dong Guang-Hui, Gao Xing-Hua, Chen Hong-Duo (2009): Protective effects of green tea extracts on photoaging and photommunosuppression. Skin Research and Technology, 15, 338-345 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00370.x
 
Liang Yu-Chih, Lin-Shiau Shoei-Yn, Chen Chieh-Fu, Lin Jen-Kun (1999): Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 activities as well as induction of cdk inhibitors p21 and p27 during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma cells by (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 75, 1-12 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(19991001)75:1<1::AID-JCB1>3.0.CO;2-N
 
Lim SH, Kim HS, Kim YK, Kim TM, Im S, Chung ME, Hong BY, Ko YJ, Kim HW, Lee JI (2010): The functional effect of epigallocatechin gallate on ischemic stroke in rats, Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 70, 40–46.
 
Lipiński Krzysztof, Mazur Magdalena, Antoszkiewicz Zofia, Purwin Cezary (2017): Polyphenols in Monogastric Nutrition – A Review. Annals of Animal Science, 17, 41-58 https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2016-0042
 
Liu Lili, Sun Li, Zhang Hongbo, Li Zhichao, Ning Xiaoxuan, Shi Yongquan, Guo Changcun, Han Shuang, Wu Kaichun, Fan Daiming (2009): Hypoxia-mediated up-regulation of MGr1-Ag/37LRP in gastric cancers occurs via hypoxia-inducible-factor 1-dependent mechanism and contributes to drug resistance. International Journal of Cancer, 124, 1707-1715 https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24135
 
Locher Rudolf, Emmanuele Luca, Suter Paolo M, Vetter Wilhelm, Barton Matthias (2002): Green tea polyphenols inhibit human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation stimulated by native low-density lipoprotein. European Journal of Pharmacology, 434, 1-7 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01535-7
 
Lorenz Mario, Rauhut Franziska, Hofer Christine, Gwosc Stefanie, Müller Eda, Praeger Damaris, Zimmermann Benno F., Wernecke Klaus-Dieter, Baumann Gert, Stangl Karl, Stangl Verena (2017): Tea-induced improvement of endothelial function in humans: No role for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Scientific Reports, 7, - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-02384-x
 
Lotito Silvina B., Fraga Cesar G. (2000): Catechins Delay Lipid Oxidation and alpha-Tocopherol and beta-Carotene Depletion Following Ascorbate Depletion in Human Plasma. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 225, 32-38 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1373.2000.22504.x
 
Mahler A, Mandel S, Lorenz M, Ruegg U, Wanker EE, Boshmann M, Paul F (2013): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate: a useful, effective and safe clinical approach for targeted prevention and individualised treatment of neurological diseases? EPMA Journal 4, 1–17.
 
Maki Kevin C., Reeves Matthew S., Farmer Mildred, Yasunaga Koichi, Matsuo Noboru, Katsuragi Yoshihisa, Komikado Masanori, Tokimitsu Ichiro, Wilder Donna, Jones Franz, Blumberg Jeffrey B., Cartwright Yolanda (2009): Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss in Overweight and Obese Adults. The Journal of Nutrition, 139, 264-270 https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.098293
 
Manolagas Stavros C. (2008): De-fense! De-fense! De-fense: Scavenging H2O2 While Making Cholesterol. Endocrinology, 149, 3264-3266 https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2008-0402
 
Manolagas Stavros C., Parfitt A. Michael (2010): What old means to bone. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 21, 369-374 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2010.01.010
 
Matsubara Satoshi, Shibata Hideyuki, Ishikawa Fumiyasu, Yokokura Teruo, Takahashi Mami, Sugimura Takashi, Wakabayashi Keiji (2003): Suppression of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis by green tea extract in Mongolian gerbils. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 310, 715-719 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.09.066
 
Matsuyama Takeshi, Tanaka Yuriko, Kamimaki Isamu, Nagao Tomonori, Tokimitsu Ichiro (2008): Catechin Safely Improved Higher Levels of Fatness, Blood Pressure, and Cholesterol in Children. Obesity, 16, 1338-1348 https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.60
 
Mazzanti Gabriela, Menniti-Ippolito Francesca, Moro Paola Angela, Cassetti Federica, Raschetti Roberto, Santuccio Carmela, Mastrangelo Sabina (2009): Hepatotoxicity from green tea: a review of the literature and two unpublished cases. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65, 331-341 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-008-0610-7
 
Meng Xiaofeng, Sang Shengmin, Zhu Nanqun, Lu Hong, Sheng Shuqun, Lee Mao-Jung, Ho Chi-Tang, Yang Chung S. (2002): Identification and Characterization of Methylated and Ring-Fission Metabolites of Tea Catechins Formed in Humans, Mice, and Rats. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 15, 1042-1050 https://doi.org/10.1021/tx010184a
 
Merck (1997): (–)-Epigallocatechin gallate. 3568. The Merck Index. 12th edn. On CD-ROM. Chapman and Hall, London.
 
Mereles Derliz, Hunstein Werner (2011): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for Clinical Trials: More Pitfalls than Promises?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12, 5592-5603 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095592
 
Min Kyoung-jin, Kwon Taeg Kyu (2014): Anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms of epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Integrative Medicine Research, 3, 16-24 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2013.12.001
 
Minocha R, Dani HM, Siddiqi MA (1986): Evaluation of carcinogenicity of infusions from green tea leaves by microsomal degranulation technique. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 24, 224–228.
 
Mody N (): Oxidative stress modulates osteoblastic differentiation of vascular and bone cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 31, 509-519 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00610-4
 
Momose Yuko, Maeda-Yamamoto Mari, Nabetani Hiroshi (2016): Systematic review of green tea epigallocatechin gallate in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of humans. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 67, 606-613 https://doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2016.1196655
 
Moradzadeh Maliheh, Hosseini Azar, Erfanian Saiedeh, Rezaei Hadi (2017): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer T47D cells through down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and Telomerase. Pharmacological Reports, 69, 924-928 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2017.04.008
 
Nagle Dale G., Ferreira Daneel, Zhou Yu-Dong (2006): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Chemical and biomedical perspectives. Phytochemistry, 67, 1849-1855 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.06.020
 
NAKAGAWA Kiyotaka, MIYAZAWA Teruo (1997): Absorption and Distribution of Tea Catechin(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, in the Rat.. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 43, 679-684 https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.43.679
 
NANJO Fumio, MORI Masao, GOTO Keiichi, HARA Yukihiko (2014): Radical Scavenging Activity of Tea Catechins and Their Related Compounds. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 63, 1621-1623 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.63.1621
 
Nantz Meri P., Rowe Cheryl A., Bukowski Jack F., Percival Susan S. (2009): Standardized capsule of Camellia sinensis lowers cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutrition, 25, 147-154 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2008.07.018
 
Narotzki Baruch, Reznick Abraham Z., Aizenbud Dror, Levy Yishai (2012): Green tea: A promising natural product in oral health. Archives of Oral Biology, 57, 429-435 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.11.017
 
Navarro-Martinez M. D. (2006): Tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits ergosterol synthesis by disturbing folic acid metabolism in Candida albicans. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 57, 1083-1092 https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkl124
 
Nelson John, McFerran Neil V., Pivato Géraldine, Chambers Emma, Doherty Caroline, Steele David, Timson David J. (2008): The 67 kDa laminin receptor: structure, function and role in disease. Bioscience Reports, 28, 33- https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20070004
 
Ohshima Hiroshi, Yoshie Yumiko, Auriol Sebastien, Gilibert Isabelle (1998): Antioxidant and pro-oxidant actions of flavonoids: effects on DNA damage induced by nitric oxide, peroxynitrite and nitroxyl anion. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 25, 1057-1065 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00141-5
 
Ortsäter Henrik, Grankvist Nina, Wolfram Swen, Kuehn Nicolas, Sjöholm Åke (2012): Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice. Nutrition & Metabolism, 9, 11- https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-9-11
 
Pang Jing-yao, Zhao Kui-jun, Wang Jia-bo, Ma Zhi-jie, Xiao Xiao-he (2014): Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possesses the antiviral activity necessary to fight against the hepatitis B virus replication in vitro. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE B, 15, 533-539 https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1300307
 
Pannala AnanthSekher, Rice-Evans Catherine A., Halliwell Barry, Singh Surinder (1997): Inhibition of Peroxynitrite-Mediated Tyrosine Nitration by Catechin Polyphenols. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 232, 164-168 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6254
 
Park Bong Joo, Taguchi Hideaki, Kamei Katsuhiko, Matsuzawa Tetsuhiro, Hyon Suong-Hyu, Park Jong-Chul (2011): In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Epigallocatechin 3- O -Gallate against Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes. Yonsei Medical Journal, 52, 535- https://doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2011.52.3.535
 
Parmar N, Rawat M, Kumar VJ (2012): Camellia sinensis (Green tea): A review. Global Journal of Pharmacology 6, 52–59.
 
Pedros C, Cereza G, Garcia N, Laporte JR (2003): Liver toxicity of Camellia sinensis dried etanolic extract. Medicina Clinica (Barcelona) 121, 598–599.
 
Pomponio Romeo, Gotti Roberto, Luppi Barbara, Cavrini Vanni (): Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for the analysis of green tea catechins: Effect of the cosurfactant on the separation selectivity. ELECTROPHORESIS, 24, 1658-1667 https://doi.org/10.1002/elps.200305391
 
Rahmani Arshad H., Al shabrmi Fahad M., Allemailem Khaled S., Aly Salah M., Khan Masood A. (2015): Implications of Green Tea and Its Constituents in the Prevention of Cancer via the Modulation of Cell Signalling Pathway. BioMed Research International, 2015, 1-12 https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/925640
 
Rao SD, Pagidas K (2010): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a natural polyphenol, inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. Anticancer Research 30, 2519–2524.
 
Ruch Randall J., Cheng Shu-jun, Klaunig James E. (1989): Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis, 10, 1003-1008 https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/10.6.1003
 
Sang Shengmin, Lambert Joshua D., Ho Chi-Tang, Yang Chung S. (2011): The chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents. Pharmacological Research, 64, 87-99 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2011.02.007
 
Sang S (2003): Chemical studies of the antioxidant mechanism of tea catechins: radical reaction products of epicatechin with peroxyl radicals. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 11, 3371-3378 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-0896(03)00367-5
 
Sano Mitsuaki, Tabata Michiko, Suzuki Masazumi, Degawa Masakuni, Miyase Toshio, Maeda-Yamamoto Mari (): Simultaneous determination of twelve tea catechins by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The Analyst, 126, 816-820 https://doi.org/10.1039/b102541b
 
Scheiman Jonathan, Tseng Jen-Chieh, Zheng Yun, Meruelo Daniel (2010): Multiple Functions of the 37/67-kd Laminin Receptor Make It a Suitable Target for Novel Cancer Gene Therapy. Molecular Therapy, 18, 63-74 https://doi.org/10.1038/mt.2009.199
 
Schramm Laura (2013): Going Green: The Role of the Green Tea Component EGCG in Chemoprevention. Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis, 04, - https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-2518.1000142
 
Seeram Navindra P., Nair Muraleedharan G. (2002): Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Structure−Activity-Related Studies of the Dietary Constituents Anthocyanins, Anthocyanidins, and Catechins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 5308-5312 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025671q
 
Shammas M. A., Neri P., Koley H., Batchu R. B., Bertheau R. C., Munshi V., Prabhala R., Fulciniti M., Tai Y. t., Treon S. P., Goyal R. K., Anderson K. C., Munshi N. C. (2006): Specific killing of multiple myeloma cells by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate extracted from green tea: biologic activity and therapeutic implications. Blood, 108, 2804-2810 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-05-022814
 
Shen C.-L., Wang P., Guerrieri J., Yeh J. K., Wang J.-S. (2008): Protective effect of green tea polyphenols on bone loss in middle-aged female rats. Osteoporosis International, 19, 979-990 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-007-0527-5
 
Shen Chwan-Li, Yeh James K., Cao Jay J., Wang Jia-Sheng (2009): Green tea and bone metabolism. Nutrition Research, 29, 437-456 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2009.06.008
 
Singh Brahma N., Shankar Sharmila, Srivastava Rakesh K. (2011): Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications. Biochemical Pharmacology, 82, 1807-1821 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2011.07.093
 
Singh Neha Atulkumar, Mandal Abul Kalam Azad, Khan Zaved Ahmed (2015): Potential neuroprotective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Nutrition Journal, 15, - https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-016-0179-4
 
Song Jae-Min, Lee Kwang-Hee, Seong Baik-Lin (2005): Antiviral effect of catechins in green tea on influenza virus. Antiviral Research, 68, 66-74 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2005.06.010
 
Spinella F. (2006): Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the endothelin axis and downstream signaling pathways in ovarian carcinoma. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 5, 1483-1492 https://doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0053
 
Steinmann J, Buer J, Pietschmann T, Steinmann E (2013): Anti-infective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea. British Journal of Pharmacology, 168, 1059-1073 https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.12009
 
Surai P. F. (2014): Polyphenol compounds in the chicken/animal diet: from the past to the future. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 98, 19-31 https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12070
 
Sutherland Brad A., Rahman Rosanna M.A., Appleton Ian (2006): Mechanisms of action of green tea catechins, with a focus on ischemia-induced neurodegeneration. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 17, 291-306 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2005.10.005
 
Suzuki M, Tabuchi M, Ikeda M, Umegaki K, Tomita T (2004): Protective effects of green tea catechins on cerebral ischemic damage. Medical Science Monitor 10, 166–174.
 
Swezey Robert R., Aldridge Daphne E., Le Valley Susanna E., Crowell James A., Hara Yukihiko, Green Carol E. (2016): Absorption, Tissue Distribution and Elimination of 4-[ 3 H]-Epigallocatechin Gallate in Beagle Dogs. International Journal of Toxicology, 22, 187-193 https://doi.org/10.1080/10915810305101
 
TACHIBANA Hirofumi (2011): Green tea polyphenol sensing. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B, 87, 66-80 https://doi.org/10.2183/pjab.87.66
 
TANAKA Reiko (2000): Protective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (+)-catechin on paraquat-induced genotoxicity in cultured cells.. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 25, 199-204 https://doi.org/10.2131/jts.25.3_199
 
Terao J., Piskula M., Yao Q. (1994): Protective Effect of Epicatechin, Epicatechin Gallate, and Quercetin on Lipid Peroxidation in Phospholipid Bilayers. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 308, 278-284 https://doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1994.1039
 
Thielecke Frank, Boschmann Michael (2009): The potential role of green tea catechins in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome – A review. Phytochemistry, 70, 11-24 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.11.011
 
Tokuda Haruhiko, Harada Atsushi, Hirade Kouseki, Matsuno Hiroyuki, Ito Hidenori, Kato Kanefusa, Oiso Yutaka, Kozawa Osamu (2003): Incadronate Amplifies Prostaglandin F 2α -induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synthesis in Osteoblasts. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, 18930-18937 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M209159200
 
Tokuda Haruhiko, Takai Shinji, Matsushima-Nishiwaki Rie, Akamatsu Shigeru, Hanai Yoshiteru, Hosoi Takayuki, Harada Atsushi, Ohta Toshiki, Kozawa Osamu (2007): (−)-epigallocatechin gallate enhances prostaglandin F2α-induced VEGF synthesis via upregulating SAPK/JNK activation in osteoblasts. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 100, 1146-1153 https://doi.org/10.1002/jcb.21104
 
TOYOSHIMA Yoshie, OKUBO Sachie, TODA Masako, HARA Yukihiko, SHIMAMURA Tadakatsu (1994): Effect of Catechin on the Ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, 68, 295-303 https://doi.org/10.11150/kansenshogakuzasshi1970.68.295
 
Tsukamoto Shuntaro, Hirotsu Keisuke, Kumazoe Motofumi, Goto Yoko, Sugihara Kaori, Suda Takafumi, Tsurudome Yukari, Suzuki Takashi, Yamashita Shuya, Kim Yoonhee, Huang Yuhui, Yamada Koji, Tachibana Hirofumi (2012): Green tea polyphenol EGCG induces lipid-raft clustering and apoptotic cell death by activating protein kinase Cδ and acid sphingomyelinase through a 67 kDa laminin receptor in multiple myeloma cells. Biochemical Journal, 443, 525-534 https://doi.org/10.1042/BJ20111837
 
Tsukamoto Shuntaro, Huang Yuhui, Umeda Daisuke, Yamada Shuhei, Yamashita Shuya, Kumazoe Motofumi, Kim Yoonhee, Murata Motoki, Yamada Koji, Tachibana Hirofumi (2014): 67-kDa Laminin Receptor-dependent Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) Activation Elicits Melanoma-specific Antitumor Activity Overcoming Drug Resistance. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289, 32671-32681 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.604983
 
Uchida S., Ozaki M., Akashi T., Yamashita K., Niwa M., Taniyama K. (1995): EFFECTS OF (-)-EPIGALLOCATECHIN-3-O-GALLATE (GREEN TEA TANNIN) ON THE LIFE SPAN OF STROKE-PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 22, S302-S303 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.1995.tb02928.x
 
Ullmann U, Haller J, Decourt JP, Girault N, Girault J, Richard-Caudron AS, Pineau B, Weber P (2003): A Single Ascending Dose Study of Epigallocatechin Gallate in Healthy Volunteers. Journal of International Medical Research, 31, 88-101 https://doi.org/10.1177/147323000303100205
 
Umeda Daisuke, Yano Satomi, Yamada Koji, Tachibana Hirofumi (2008): Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Signaling Pathway through 67-kDa Laminin Receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283, 3050-3058 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M707892200
 
Unno Tomonori, Takeo Tadakazu (2014): Absorption of (–)-Epigallocatechin Gallate into the Circulation System of Rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 59, 1558-1559 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.59.1558
 
VALI B, RAO L, ELSOHEMY A (2007): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases the formation of mineralized bone nodules by human osteoblast-like cells. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 18, 341-347 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2006.06.005
 
VIACAVA PAOLO, NACCARATO ANTONIO G., COLLECCHI PAOLA, MÉNARD SYLVIE, CASTRONOVO VINCENT, BEVILACQUA GENEROSO (1997): THE SPECTRUM OF 67-kD LAMININ RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN BREAST CARCINOMA PROGRESSION. The Journal of Pathology, 182, 36-44 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199705)182:1<36::AID-PATH802>3.0.CO;2-W
 
Wang H., Bian S., Yang C. S. (2011): Green tea polyphenol EGCG suppresses lung cancer cell growth through upregulating miR-210 expression caused by stabilizing HIF-1 . Carcinogenesis, 32, 1881-1889 https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgr218
 
Weber Joseph M, Ruzindana-Umunyana Angelique, Imbeault Lise, Sircar Sucheta (2003): Inhibition of adenovirus infection and adenain by green tea catechins. Antiviral Research, 58, 167-173 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-3542(02)00212-7
 
Weisburger JH (1996): Tea antioxidants and health. In: Cadenas E, Packer L (eds): Handbook of Antioxidants. Marcel Dekker, New York. 469–486.
 
Weiss David J., Anderton Christopher R. (2003): Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1011, 173-180 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)01133-6
 
Weiss David J., Austria Eric J., Anderton Christopher R., Hompesch Richard, Jander Ashley (2006): Analysis of green tea extract dietary supplements by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1117, 103-108 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.03.057
 
Wright Louwrance Peter, Aucamp Jean Pieter, Apostolides Zeno (2001): Analysis of black tea theaflavins by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A, 919, 205-213 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)00762-2
 
Wu Liang, Zhang Qun-Lin, Zhang Xiao-Yue, Lv Chen, Li Jun, Yuan Ye, Yin Fang-Xiong (2012): Pharmacokinetics and Blood–Brain Barrier Penetration of (+)-Catechin and (−)-Epicatechin in Rats by Microdialysis Sampling Coupled to High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Chemiluminescence Detection. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 9377-9383 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf301787f
 
Wu Qingli, Wang Mingfu, Simon James E. (2003): Determination of Proanthocyanidins in Grape Products by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Detection under Low Collision Energy. Analytical Chemistry, 75, 2440-2444 https://doi.org/10.1021/ac0262311
 
(2017): A Review of the Antiviral Role of Green Tea Catechins. Molecules, 22, 1337- https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081337
 
Yamaguchi Koushi, Honda Mitsuo, Ikigai Hajime, Hara Yukihiko, Shimamura Tadakatsu (2002): Inhibitory effects of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral Research, 53, 19-34 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-3542(01)00189-9
 
Yamane Tetsuro, Nakatani Hirohisa, Kikuoka Norikazu, Matsumoto Hirohiko, Iwata Yasushi, Kitao Yoshitaka, Oya Kazuhiko, Takahashi Toshio (1996): Inhibitory effects and toxicity of green tea polyphenols for gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Cancer, 77, 1662-1667 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960415)77:8<1662::AID-CNCR36>3.0.CO;2-W
 
Yamauchi Junichi, Takai Shinji, Matsushima-Nishiwaki Rie, Hanai Yoshiteru, Doi Tomoaki, Kato Hisaaki, Ogura Shinji, Kato Kanefusa, Tokuda Haruhiko, Kozawa Osamu (2007): (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits prostaglandin D2-stimulated HSP27 induction via suppression of the p44/p42 MAP kinase pathway in osteoblasts. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 77, 173-179 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2007.09.001
 
Yan Jiong, Feng Zhihui, Liu Jia, Shen Weili, Wang Ying, Wertz Karin, Weber Peter, Long Jiangang, Liu Jiankang (2012): Enhanced autophagy plays a cardinal role in mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats: ameliorating effects of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 23, 716-724 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.03.014
 
Yang Hua, Wei Chao-Ling, Liu Hong-Wei, Wu Jun-Lan, Li Zheng-Guo, Zhang Liang, Jian Jian-Bo, Li Ye-Yun, Tai Yu-Ling, Zhang Jing, Zhang Zheng-Zhu, Jiang Chang-Jun, Xia Tao, Wan Xiao-Chun, Prasad Manoj (2016): Genetic Divergence between Camellia sinensis and Its Wild Relatives Revealed via Genome-Wide SNPs from RAD Sequencing. PLOS ONE, 11, e0151424- https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151424
 
Yashin Alexander, Nemzer Boris, Yashin Yakov (2012): Bioavailability of Tea Components. Journal of Food Research, 1, - https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v1n2p281
 
Yuskavage JK (2008): Epigallocatechin gallate in the regulation of insulin secretion. [Msc Thesis.] Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA. 53 pp.
 
ZHANG YUNJUAN, DUAN WEI, OWUSU LAWRENCE, WU DACHANG, XIN YI (2015): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma LM6 cells but not non-cancerous liver cells. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 35, 117-124 https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.1988
 
Zhang Zhaofeng, Ding Ye, Dai Xiaoqian, Wang Junbo, Li Yong (2011): Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects pro-inflammatory cytokine induced injuries in insulin-producing cells through the mitochondrial pathway. European Journal of Pharmacology, 670, 311-316 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.08.033
 
Zhao B, Guo Q, Xin W (2001): Free radical scavenging by green tea polyphenols. Methods in Enzymolology 335, 217–231.
 
Zhao Baolu, Li Xiaojie, He Rungen, Cheng Shujun, Wenjuan Xin (1989): Scavenging effect of extracts of green tea and natural antioxidants on active oxygen radicals. Cell Biophysics, 14, 175-185 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02797132
 
Zhou Jin, Farah Benjamin Livingston, Sinha Rohit Anthony, Wu Yajun, Singh Brijesh Kumar, Bay Boon-Huat, Yang Chung S., Yen Paul Michael, Guillou Hervé (2014): Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG), a Green Tea Polyphenol, Stimulates Hepatic Autophagy and Lipid Clearance. PLoS ONE, 9, e87161- https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087161
 
Zhu Min, Chen Yu, Li Ronald C. (): Oral Absorption and Bioavailability of Tea Catechins. Planta Medica, 66, 444-447 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8599
 
download PDF

© 2018 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences