Antidermatophyte and antioxidant activities of Nigella sativa alone and in combination with enilconazole in treatment of dermatophytosis in cattle

https://doi.org/10.17221/32/2015-VETMEDCitation:Balikci E. (2016): Antidermatophyte and antioxidant activities of Nigella sativa alone and in combination with enilconazole in treatment of dermatophytosis in cattle. Veterinarni Medicina, 61: 539-545.
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The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess the antidermatophyte and antioxidant activities of enilconazole, Nigella sativa (NS) and enilconazole with NS in the treatment of dermatophytosis in cattle. A total of 24 cattle with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis were used in the study. Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated and identified from all of the specimens stemming from the dermatophytosis-suspected animals. The lesion areas in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were treated as follows: enilconazole (three times at 3-day intervals), NS (once a day for two weeks) and enilconazole with NS, respectively. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels and non-significant increases (P > 0.05) in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels after treatment in Group 1 when compared with Groups 2 and 3. After treatment, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione levels increased (P < 0.05) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels decreased (P < 0.05) in Groups 1, 2 and 3 in comparison with before treatment. However, there were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels and significant increases (P < 0.05) in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione levels after treatment in Groups 2 and 3 when compared with Group 1. This study indicates that NS might have antidermatophyte and antioxidant effects in the treatment of dermatophytosis in cattle and the antidermatophyte effects of NS plus enilconazole was stronger among all groups.
References:
Aghel N, Moghimipour E, Ameri A (2007): Characterization of an antidermatophytic cream from Zataria multiflora Boiss. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 3, 77–84.
 
Alexander BD, Perfect JR (2000): Antifungal resistance trends towards the year 2000. Implications for therapy and new approaches. Drugs 54, 657–678.
 
Aljabre Salih Hamad Mohamad, Randhawa Mohamad Akram, Akhtar Naeem, Alakloby Omar Mohamad, Alqurashi Abdulrahman Mohamad, Aldossary Ali (2005): Antidermatophyte activity of ether extract of Nigella sativa and its active principle, thymoquinone. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101, 116-119  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.002
 
Arslan HH, Yarim GF, Yavuz O, Bas B (2007): Positive effects of attenuated Trichophyton verrucosum strain administration in treatment of the bovine trichophytosis. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 158, 509–513.
 
Buetler E, Duron O, Kelly B (1963): Improved method for blood glutathione. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 61, 882–888.
 
Burits M., Bucar F. (2000): Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytotherapy Research, 14, 323-328  https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<323::AID-PTR621>3.0.CO;2-Q
 
Cam Y., Koc A. N., Silici S., Gunes V., Buldu H., Onmaz A. C., Kasap F. F. (2009): Treatment of dermatophytosis in young cattle with propolis and Whitfield's ointment. Veterinary Record, 165, 57-58  https://doi.org/10.1136/vetrec.165.2.57
 
Cheesbrough M (ed.) (1992): Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. 371–378.
 
De Keyser H (1981): Activity of repeated administration of enilconazole (R23979) against Trichophyton verrucosum in cattle. A clinical trial (in Dutch). Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 106, 799–805.
 
Dejaham C (1998): Enilconazole emulsion in the treatment of dermatophytosis in Persian cats; tolerance and suitability. In: Kwochka KW, Willemse T, Von Tscharner C (eds): Advances in Veterinary Dermatology: Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology, Edinburgh, 11–14th September, 1996. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. 299–307.
 
Figg William D., Woo Sukyung, Zhu Wenhui, Chen Xiaohong, Ajiboye A. Seun, Steinberg Seth M., Price Douglas K., Wright John J., Parnes Howard L., Arlen Philip M., Gulley James L., Dahut William L. (2010): A Phase I Clinical Study of High Dose Ketoconazole Plus Weekly Docetaxel for Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urology, 183, 2219-2226  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.020
 
Gupta Aditya K., Gregurek-Novak Teodora (2001): Efficacy of Itraconazole, Terbinafine, Fluconazole, Griseofulvin and Ketoconazole in the Treatment of <i>Scopulariopsis brevicaulis</i> Causing Onychomycosis of the Toes. Dermatology, 202, 235-238  https://doi.org/10.1159/000051643
 
Halley LD, Standard PG (eds) (1973): Laboratory Methods in Medical Mycology. 3rd edn. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare Center of Disease Control, Atlanta. 41–57.
 
Hnilica Keith A., Medleau Linda (2002): Evaluation of topically applied enilconazole for the treatment of dermatophytosis in a Persian cattery. Veterinary Dermatology, 13, 23-28  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0959-4493.2001.00282.x
 
Iqbal Z, Sheikh U, Mughal R (2012): Fungal infections in some economically important freshwater fishes. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 32, 422–426.
 
Khan M. A. U., Ashfaq M. K., Zuberi H. S., Mahmood M. S., Gilani A. H. (2003): The in vivo antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Phytotherapy Research, 17, 183-186  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1146
 
Khattab Mahmoud M., Nagi Mahmoud N. (2007): Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates hypertension and renal damage in nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats. Phytotherapy Research, 21, 410-414  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2083
 
KIM TAE-HYUNG, KIM BYUNG-HO, KIM YOUN-WHA, YANG DAL MO, HAN YO-SEB, DONG SEOK HO, KIM HYO JONG, CHANG YOUNG-WOON, LEE JOUNG IL, CHANG RIN (2003): Liver cirrhosis developed after ketoconazole-induced acute hepatic injury. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 18, 1426-1429  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1746.2003.02852.x
 
Lautenbacher LM (1997): Schwarzkummelol (in German). Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung 137, 68–69.
 
Mugnaini Linda, Nardoni Simona, Pistelli Luisa, Leonardi Michele, Giuliotti Lorella, Benvenuti Maria N., Pisseri Francesca, Mancianti Francesca (2013): A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum , Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Mycoses, 56, 333-337  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12034
 
Paglia DE, Valentine WN (1967): Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 70, 158–169.
 
Phillips JD (1992): Medicinal plants. Biologist 39, 187–191.
 
Rochette F., Engelen M., Vanden Bossche H. (2003): Antifungal agents of use in animal health - practical applications. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 26, 31-53  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2885.2003.00457.x
 
Sarma DS, Mallick AR, Ghosh AK (2010): Free radicals and their role in different clinical conditions: An overview. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research 1, 185–192.
 
Sayari B, Kasturi M, Soumika B (2014): Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status: a comparison between middle aged and elderly population. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 4, 14–18.
 
Schepens M, Spanoghe L (1981): Dermatomycosis in cattle. A review of literature and experimental treatment with enilconazole. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 50, 201–206.
 
Smith BP (ed.) (2002): Large Animal Internal Medicine. 3rd edn. Mosby Harcourt, St Louis. 1213–1214.
 
Sun Y, Oberley LW, Li Y (1988): A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clinical Chemistry 34, 497–500.
 
Swai E, Sanka P (2012): Bovine Dermatophytosis Caused by Trychophyton Verrucosum: A Case Report. Veterinary World, 5, 297-  https://doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2012.297-300
 
Thippeswamy N. B., Naidu K. Akhilender (2005): Antioxidant potency of cumin varieties—cumin, black cumin and bitter cumin—on antioxidant systems. European Food Research and Technology, 220, 472-476  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-004-1087-y
 
Xiao CW, Ji QA, Rajput ZI, Wei Q, Liu Y, Bao GL (2014): Antifungal efficacy of Phellodendron amurense ethanol extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rabbits. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 34, 219–223.
 
Yagi K (1984): Assay for blood plasma and serum. Methods in Enzymology 105, 328–331.
 
Yaman İhsan, Balikci Engin (2010): Protective effects of nigella sativa against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 62, 183-190  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2009.03.006
 
Yildiz Atilla, Balikci Engin (): Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa in clinically endometritic cows. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 44, 431-435  https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2015.1091341
 
Zahran (2013): EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO <i>T. VERRUCOSUM</i> VACCINES. American Journal of Immunology, 9, 139-147  https://doi.org/10.3844/ajisp.2013.139.147
 
Aghel N, Moghimipour E, Ameri A (2007): Characterization of an antidermatophytic cream from Zataria multiflora Boiss. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 3, 77–84.
 
Alexander BD, Perfect JR (2000): Antifungal resistance trends towards the year 2000. Implications for therapy and new approaches. Drugs 54, 657–678.
 
Aljabre Salih Hamad Mohamad, Randhawa Mohamad Akram, Akhtar Naeem, Alakloby Omar Mohamad, Alqurashi Abdulrahman Mohamad, Aldossary Ali (2005): Antidermatophyte activity of ether extract of Nigella sativa and its active principle, thymoquinone. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101, 116-119  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.002
 
Arslan HH, Yarim GF, Yavuz O, Bas B (2007): Positive effects of attenuated Trichophyton verrucosum strain administration in treatment of the bovine trichophytosis. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 158, 509–513.
 
Buetler E, Duron O, Kelly B (1963): Improved method for blood glutathione. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 61, 882–888.
 
Burits M., Bucar F. (2000): Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytotherapy Research, 14, 323-328  https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<323::AID-PTR621>3.0.CO;2-Q
 
Cam Y., Koc A. N., Silici S., Gunes V., Buldu H., Onmaz A. C., Kasap F. F. (2009): Treatment of dermatophytosis in young cattle with propolis and Whitfield's ointment. Veterinary Record, 165, 57-58  https://doi.org/10.1136/vetrec.165.2.57
 
Cheesbrough M (ed.) (1992): Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. 371–378.
 
De Keyser H (1981): Activity of repeated administration of enilconazole (R23979) against Trichophyton verrucosum in cattle. A clinical trial (in Dutch). Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 106, 799–805.
 
Dejaham C (1998): Enilconazole emulsion in the treatment of dermatophytosis in Persian cats; tolerance and suitability. In: Kwochka KW, Willemse T, Von Tscharner C (eds): Advances in Veterinary Dermatology: Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology, Edinburgh, 11–14th September, 1996. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. 299–307.
 
Figg William D., Woo Sukyung, Zhu Wenhui, Chen Xiaohong, Ajiboye A. Seun, Steinberg Seth M., Price Douglas K., Wright John J., Parnes Howard L., Arlen Philip M., Gulley James L., Dahut William L. (2010): A Phase I Clinical Study of High Dose Ketoconazole Plus Weekly Docetaxel for Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urology, 183, 2219-2226  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.020
 
Gupta Aditya K., Gregurek-Novak Teodora (2001): Efficacy of Itraconazole, Terbinafine, Fluconazole, Griseofulvin and Ketoconazole in the Treatment of <i>Scopulariopsis brevicaulis</i> Causing Onychomycosis of the Toes. Dermatology, 202, 235-238  https://doi.org/10.1159/000051643
 
Halley LD, Standard PG (eds) (1973): Laboratory Methods in Medical Mycology. 3rd edn. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare Center of Disease Control, Atlanta. 41–57.
 
Hnilica Keith A., Medleau Linda (2002): Evaluation of topically applied enilconazole for the treatment of dermatophytosis in a Persian cattery. Veterinary Dermatology, 13, 23-28  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0959-4493.2001.00282.x
 
Iqbal Z, Sheikh U, Mughal R (2012): Fungal infections in some economically important freshwater fishes. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 32, 422–426.
 
Khan M. A. U., Ashfaq M. K., Zuberi H. S., Mahmood M. S., Gilani A. H. (2003): The in vivo antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Phytotherapy Research, 17, 183-186  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1146
 
Khattab Mahmoud M., Nagi Mahmoud N. (2007): Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates hypertension and renal damage in nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats. Phytotherapy Research, 21, 410-414  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2083
 
KIM TAE-HYUNG, KIM BYUNG-HO, KIM YOUN-WHA, YANG DAL MO, HAN YO-SEB, DONG SEOK HO, KIM HYO JONG, CHANG YOUNG-WOON, LEE JOUNG IL, CHANG RIN (2003): Liver cirrhosis developed after ketoconazole-induced acute hepatic injury. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 18, 1426-1429  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1746.2003.02852.x
 
Lautenbacher LM (1997): Schwarzkummelol (in German). Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung 137, 68–69.
 
Mugnaini Linda, Nardoni Simona, Pistelli Luisa, Leonardi Michele, Giuliotti Lorella, Benvenuti Maria N., Pisseri Francesca, Mancianti Francesca (2013): A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum , Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Mycoses, 56, 333-337  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12034
 
Paglia DE, Valentine WN (1967): Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 70, 158–169.
 
Phillips JD (1992): Medicinal plants. Biologist 39, 187–191.
 
Rochette F., Engelen M., Vanden Bossche H. (2003): Antifungal agents of use in animal health - practical applications. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 26, 31-53  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2885.2003.00457.x
 
Sarma DS, Mallick AR, Ghosh AK (2010): Free radicals and their role in different clinical conditions: An overview. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research 1, 185–192.
 
Sayari B, Kasturi M, Soumika B (2014): Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status: a comparison between middle aged and elderly population. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 4, 14–18.
 
Schepens M, Spanoghe L (1981): Dermatomycosis in cattle. A review of literature and experimental treatment with enilconazole. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 50, 201–206.
 
Smith BP (ed.) (2002): Large Animal Internal Medicine. 3rd edn. Mosby Harcourt, St Louis. 1213–1214.
 
Sun Y, Oberley LW, Li Y (1988): A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clinical Chemistry 34, 497–500.
 
Swai E, Sanka P (2012): Bovine Dermatophytosis Caused by Trychophyton Verrucosum: A Case Report. Veterinary World, 5, 297-  https://doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2012.297-300
 
Thippeswamy N. B., Naidu K. Akhilender (2005): Antioxidant potency of cumin varieties—cumin, black cumin and bitter cumin—on antioxidant systems. European Food Research and Technology, 220, 472-476  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-004-1087-y
 
Xiao CW, Ji QA, Rajput ZI, Wei Q, Liu Y, Bao GL (2014): Antifungal efficacy of Phellodendron amurense ethanol extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rabbits. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 34, 219–223.
 
Yagi K (1984): Assay for blood plasma and serum. Methods in Enzymology 105, 328–331.
 
Yaman İhsan, Balikci Engin (2010): Protective effects of nigella sativa against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 62, 183-190  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2009.03.006
 
Yildiz Atilla, Balikci Engin (): Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa in clinically endometritic cows. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 44, 431-435  https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2015.1091341
 
Zahran (2013): EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO <i>T. VERRUCOSUM</i> VACCINES. American Journal of Immunology, 9, 139-147  https://doi.org/10.3844/ajisp.2013.139.147
 
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