P-wave dispersion and renal biomarkers in canine visceral leishmaniasis stage III and IV infected dogs
Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease affecting most vital organs and also causing myocardial and/or renal damage. P-wave dispersion, a newly used non-invasive ECG indicator, is used to follow atrial arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, valvular disease in both human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study involving Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL)-infected dogs in stage III and IV was to verify whether the P-wave dispersion was related to the renal failure. For this purpose, a total of 17 dogs of different ages, both sexes, comprising eleven animals with CVL (at stage III and IV) diagnosed using a rapid ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test and serological IFAT (immunofluorescence.antibody titres) and six healthy dogs used as controls were enrolled. Significant differences between the P-wave dispersion (regarding the mean values) of the control, stage III and IV-infected groups (P = 0.003) were detected as follows: 21.8 ± 0.5, 20.6 ± 1.2 and 25.0 ± 0.4 ms, respectively. The P-wave dispersion value was moderately longer in the stage IV-infected group compared with the control one (P = 0.022), however, the aforementioned relationship was determined as significant between the stage IV and III-infected groups (P = 0.003). Regarding all of the biomarkers of the renal function monitored within this study, there were differences between the control and stage IV-infected group for the creatinine (P = 0.002), the control and stage IV-infected group for the urine protein/creatinine ratio (P < 0.001), and the stage III and stage IV-infected groups for the urine protein/creatinine ratio (P < 0.001). In conclusion, an increased P-wave dispersion was not associated with renal failure. It might be related to the limitation of our study including small sample sizes in the groups. Therefore, the cardiac indicators were not analysed. For more accurate results, it is desirable to perform further studies including a larger sample size along with an investigation of the cardiac and renal indicators.
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