Milk urea nitrogen and milk fatty acid compositions in dairy cows with subacute ruminal acidosis
The present study was aimed at comparing the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and milk fatty acid (MFA) compositions in Holstein cows with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) to those values of Holstein cows that did not have SARA. Also, the correlations among rumen pH value and the compositions of MUN and MFA in milk were determined. Dairy cows (n = 16) with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) (pH value 5.60 ± 0.02) and control dairy cows (n = 16) (control) (pH value 6.20 ± 0.04) were studied. The MUN concentrations (578 µg/l) of the dairy cows with SARA was lower than those (1 315 µg/l) of the control dairy cows (P < 0.001). In the milk of the dairy cows with SARA, the unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), thrombogenic index (TI), and hypocholesterolemic fatty acid index (hcFA) decreased; but the saturated fatty acids (SFA), atherogenic (AI) and hypercholesterolemic fatty acid (HcFA) indexes (P < 0.01) increased. The rumen pH value and the concentration of the MUN were positively correlated with the proportions of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-3 fatty acids (n-3), omega-6 fatty acids (n-6), omega-9 fatty acids (n-9), long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and the n-3/n-6 ratio of the milk samples (P < 0.05). Consequently, the dairy cow with SARA that are in early-lactation can affect the carbohydrate fermentation, fatty acid hydrogenation and protein degradation. The MUN concentration in the dairy cows with SARA seriously decreased. The SARA changes the milk fatty acid composition and decreases the MUFA, PUFA, n-3, oleic acid and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio (h/H) values of milk. Therefore, the nutritional and functional quality for human nutrition decreases in the milk of dairy cows with SARA.
AOAC – Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1995.
Arunvipas P, Dohoo IR, VanLeeuwen JA, Keefe GP. The effect of non-nutritional factors on milk urea nitrogen levels in dairy cows in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Prev Vet Med. 2003 May 30;59(1-2):83-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(03)00061-8
Bach A, Calsamiglia S, Stern MD. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. J Dairy Sci. 2005 May;88(Suppl 1):E9-21. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73133-7
Bruning-Fann CS, Kaneene JB. The effects of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds on animal health. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1993 Jun;35(3):521-38.
Butler WR. Review: Effect of protein nutrition on ovarian and uterine physiology in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 1998 Sep;81(9):2533-9. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)70146-8
Calsamiglia S, Ferret A, Devant M. Effects of pH and pH fluctuations on microbial fermentation and nutrient flow from a dual-flow continuous culture system. J Dairy Sci. 2002 Mar;85(3):574-9. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74111-8
Calsamiglia S, Ferret A, Plaixats J, Devant M. Effect of pH and pH fluctuations on microbial fermentation in a continuous culture system. J Dairy Sci. 1999;82(Suppl 1):38.
Danscher AM, Li S, Andersen PH, Khafipour E, Kristensen NB, Plaizier JC. Indicators of induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in Danish Holstein cows. Acta Vet Scand. 2015 Jul 17;57(1):39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-015-0128-9
Donker JD. Improved energy prediction equations for dairy cattle rations. J Dairy Sci. 1989 Nov;72(11):2942-8. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79446-7
FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories. FAO Animal Production and Health Manual No. 14. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2011.
Gao X, Oba M. Short communication: Noninvasive indicators to identify lactating dairy cows with a greater risk of subacute rumen acidosis. J Dairy Sci. 2015 Aug;98(8):5735-9. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-9456
Garrett EF, Pereira MN, Armentano LE, Nordlund KV, Oetzel GR. Comparison of pH and VFA concentration of rumen fluid from dairy cows collected through a rumen canal vs. rumenocentesis. J Dairy Sci. 1995;78(Suppl 1):299.
Godden SM, Kelton DF, Lissemore KD, Walton JS, Leslie KE, Lumsden JH. Milk urea testing as a tool to monitor reproductive performance in Ontario dairy herds. J Dairy Sci. 2001 Jun;84(6):1397-406. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70171-3
Hanus O, Samkova E, Krizova L, Hasonova L, Kala R. Role of fatty acids in milk fat and the influence of selected factors on their variability – A review. Molecules. 2018 Jul 4;23(7):1636. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071636
Haug A, Hostmark AT, Harstad OM. Bovine milk in human nutrition – A review. Lipids Health Dis. 2007 Sep 25;6:25. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-6-25
Huntington GB, Archibeque SL. Practical aspects of urea and ammonia metabolism in ruminants. J Anim Sci. 2000;77(Suppl E):1-11. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas2000.77E-Suppl1y
Illek J. A tehenek alacsony tejfehérje-szindrómája [Syndrome of low-protein cow milk]. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja. 1995 Oct 30;50(10):738-9. Hungarian.
Jonker JS, Kohn RA, Erdman RA. Using milk urea nitrogen to predict nitrogen excretion and utilization efficiency in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 1998 Oct;81(10)2681-92. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75825-4
Kleen JL, Hooijer GA, Rehage J, Noordhuizen JP. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA): A review. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003 Oct;50(8):406-14. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0442.2003.00569.x
Krajcarski-Hunt H, Plaizier JC, Walton JP, Spratt R, McBride BW. Short communication: Effect of subacute ruminal acidosis on in situ fiber digestion in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2002 Mar;85(3):570-3. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74110-6
Kramer JK, Fellner V, Dugan ME, Sauer FD, Mossoba MM, Yurawecz MP. Evaluating acid and base catalysts in the methylation of milk and rumen fatty acids with special emphasis on conjugated dienes and total trans fatty acids. Lipids. 1997 Nov;32(11):1219-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-997-0156-3
Lana RP, Russell JB, Van Amburgh ME. The role of pH in regulating ruminal methane and ammonia production. J Anim Sci. 1998 Aug;76(8):2190-6. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7682190x
Muchenje V, Dzama K, Chimonyo M, Strydom PE, Hugo A, Raats JG. Some biochemical aspects pertaining to beef eating quality and consumer health: A review. Food Chem. 2009 Jan 15;112(2):279-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.103
Munyaneza N, Niyukuri J, Hachimi YE. Milk urea nitrogen as an indicator of nitrogen metabolism efficiency in dairy cows: A review. Theriogenology Insight. 2017;7(3):145-59. https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-3371.2017.00032.8
NRC – National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th ed. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press; 2001.
Pilarczyk R, Wojcik J, Sablik P, Czerniak P. Fatty acid profile and health lipid indices in the raw milk of Simmental and Holstein-Friesian cows from an organic farm. S Afr J Anim Sci. 2015;45(1):30-8. https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v45i1.4
Plaizier JC, Krause DO, Gozho GN, McBride BW. Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows: The physiological causes, incidence and consequences. Vet J. 2008 Apr;176(1):21-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.016
Roseler DK, Ferguson JD, Sniffen CJ, Herrema J. Dietary protein degradability effects on plasma and milk urea nitrogen and milk nonprotein nitrogen in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 1993 Feb 1;76(2):525-34. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77372-5
Roy B, Brahma B, Ghosh S, Pankaj PK, Madal G. Evaluation of milk urea concentration as useful indicator for dairy herd management: A review. Asian J Anim Vet Adv. 2011 Jan 1;6(1):1-19. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2011.1.19
Santillo A, Caroprese M, Marino R, d’Angelo F, Sevi A, Albenzio M. Fatty acid profile of milk and Cacioricotta cheese from Italian Simmental cows as affected by dietary flaxseed supplementation. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Apr;99(4):2545-51. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10419
Schepers AJ, Meijer RG. Evaluation of the utilization of dietary nitrogen by dairy cows based on urea concentration in milk. J Dairy Sci. 1998 Feb;81(2):579-84. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75611-5
Swenson MJ, Reece WO. Water balance and excretion. In: Swenson MJ, Reece WO, editors. Duke`s physiology of domestic animals. 11th ed. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press; 1993. p. 573-604.
Ulbricht TL, Southgate DA. Coronary heart disease: Seven dietary factors. Lancet. 1991 Oct 19;338(8773):985-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)91846-M
Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci. 1991 Oct;74(10):3583-97. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
Wang J, Wu W, Wang X, Wang M, Wu F. An affective GC method for the determination of the fatty acid composition in silkworm pupae oil using a two-step methylation process. J Serb Chem Soc. 2015;80(1):9-20. https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC140401073W
Weiss WP, Tebbe AW. Estimating digestible energy values of feeds and diets and integrating those values into net energy systems. Transl Anim Sci. 2019 Nov 5;3(3):953-61. https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txy119
Williams CM. Dietary fatty acids and human health. Ann Zootech. 2000 May 1;49(3):165-80. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2000116
Zebeli Q, Aschenbach JR, Tafaj M, Boguhn J, Ametaj BN, Drochner W. Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2012 Mar;95(3):1041-56. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4421