Efficacy and safety of higher oral doses of azaperone to achieve sedation in pigsCitation:
Svoboda M, Blahova J, Hostovsky M, Jarkovsky J, Netolicky J, Predny P, Simkova I, Vanhara J, Vasek J (2022): Efficacy and safety of higher oral doses of azaperone to achieve sedation in pigs. Vet Med-Czech 67, 553–561.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of achieving more effective and prolonged sedation in pigs by the oral administration of increased doses of azaperone and to evaluate its safety. This was performed through a prospective randomised and double blinded study. A total of 32 weaned piglets were divided into 4 groups (8 in each group). Group A was given 1 ml of saline orally and served as the control group. Group B received azaperone orally at a dose of 4 mg/kg b.w. Group C received azaperone orally at a dose of 8 mg/kg b.w. Group D was given azaperone orally at a dose of 12 mg/kg b.w. The response to the defined stimulus, movement level, degree of salivation, body temperature, respiratory frequency, blood plasma azaperone concentration and biochemical variables were included in the trial. We found that by increasing the dose of the orally administered azaperone, the onset of the sedation is faster, the end of the sedation starts later and the sedation time is longer. However, the use of higher doses of oral azaperone is not suitable for piglets because the doses negatively affect the respiratory rate, body temperature, some biochemical parameters and cause the immobility of the piglets.
Dantzer R. New aspects of the use of tranquilizers in animal husbandry, with particular reference to pigs. Vet Sci Commun. 1977 Dec;1(1):161-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02267646
Etim NN, Williams ME, Evans EI, Offiong EEA. Physiological and behavioral responses of farm animals to stress: Implications to animal productivity. Am J Adv Agr Res. 2013 Oct;1(2):53-61.
European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Azaperon summary report [Internet]. The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit; 1997 [cited 2022 Apr 10]. Available from: http://www.eudra.org/emea.html, EMEA/MRL/300/97-FINAL.
Golan DE. Pharmacology of dopamine neurotransmission. In: Golan DE, Armstrong EJ, Armstrong AW, editors. Principles of pharmacology: The pathophysiologic basis of drug therapy. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2016. p. 185-207.
Heykants J, Lewi P, Janssen PA. On the distribution and metabolism of azaperone (R 1929) in the rat and pig. II. Pharmacokinetics of azaperone in the Wistar rat. Arzneimittelforschung. 1971 Aug;21(8):1263-9.
Holzchuh MP, Cremonesi E. Anaesthesia in pigs. Analysis of azaperone and etomidate effects separately and in association. J Vet Anaesth. 1991 Aug;18(Suppl_1):197-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.1991.tb00546.x
Jones RS. A review of tranquillisation and sedation in large animals. Vet Rec. 1972 May 27;90(22):613-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.90.22.613
Kamanova V, Nevrkla P, Hadas Z, Lujka J, Filipcik R. Changes of sperm morphology in Duroc, Landrace and Large White boars depending on the ambient temperature during the year. Vet Med-Czech. 2021;66(5):189-96. https://doi.org/10.17221/203/2020-VETMED
Lang E. The use of azaperone for pigs. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1970 Apr;83(8):141-3.
Lin CS, Huang CH, Adi VSK, Huang CW, Cheng YI, Chen JH, Liu YC. A statistical approach to identify prevalent virulence factors responsible for post-weaning diarrhoeic piglets. Vet Med-Czech. 2022 Aug;67(8):430-9. https://doi.org/10.17221/84/2021-VETMED
Marsboom R, Symoens J. Azaperone (R1929) as a sedative for pigs. Neth J Vet Sci. 1968 Jan;1:124-31.
Martinez-Miro S, Tecles F, Ramon M, Escribano D, Hernandez F, Madrid J, Orengo J, Martinez-Subiela S, Manteca X, Ceron JJ. Causes, consequences and biomarkers of stress in swine: An update. BMC Vet Res. 2016 Aug 19;12(1):171. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0791-8
Mestorino N, Marchetti ML, Martinez MA, Anadon A. Tissue depletion of azaperone and its metabolite azaperol after oral administration of azaperone in food-producing pigs. Rev Toxicol. 2013 Dec;30(2):209-13.
Niemegeers CJ, Van Nueten JM, Janssen PA. Azaperone, a sedative neuroleptic of the butyrophenone series with pronounced anti-aggressive and anti-shock activity in animals. Arzneimittelforschung. 1974 Nov;24(11):1798-806.
Nishimura R, Kim H, Matsunaga S, Hayashi K, Tamura H, Sasaki N, Takeuchi A. Comparison of sedative and analgesic/anesthetic effects induced by medetomidine, acepromazine, azaperone, droperidol and midazolam in laboratory pigs. J Vet Med Sci. 1993 Aug;55(4):687-90. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.55.687
Porter DB, Slusser CA. Azaperone – A review of a new neuroleptic agent for swine. Vet Med. 1985 Jan;80(3):88-92.
Schwarz T, Ziecik A, Murawski M, Nowicki J, Tuz R, Baker B, Bartlewski PM. The influence of azaperone treatment at weaning on reproductive function in sows: Ovarian activity and endocrine profiles during the weaning-to-ovulation interval. Animal. 2018 Oct;12(10):2089-97.
Svoboda M, Fajt Z, Mruvcinska M, Vasek J. The effects of buccal administration of azaperone on the sedation level and biochemical variables of weaned piglets. Acta Vet Brno. 2021 Feb;90(1):47-56.
Tan SSL, Shackleton DM. Effects of mixing unfamiliar individuals and of azaperone on the social behaviour of finishing pigs. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 1990 Jan;26(1-2):157-68.