Congestive heart failure in a veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus): A case report

Oliveri M, Agudelo CF, Cermakova E, Knotkova Z, Krizova P, Luciani A, Knotek Z (2022): Congestive heart failure in a veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus): A case report. Vet Med-Czech 67, 263–269.

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A two-year-old male veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) was referred for a gular oedema and bilateral blepharoedema. The echocardiography revealed a ventricular hypertrophy, pericardial effusion, and valvular regurgitation of the right atrioventricular valve. Treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril, and carvedilol was commenced. Within 3 weeks of treatment, the valvular regurgitation was noticeably decreased. In the 4th week of treatment, the echocardiography revealed a reduction in the myocardium hypertrophy. After an additional month of home treatment, the patient was presented with anorexia and decreased activity. Despite the supportive care, the patient died. The histopathology revealed mild to moderate fibrosis of the epicardium. Moderate to severe fibrosis, degeneration of the myofibrils, fatty atrophy, interstitial oedema and mild calcification was seen in the atria. The tunica intima, media and adventitia of the major cardiac vessels were moderately fibrotic, swollen and interfused by myxoedema. The kidney histopathology revealed moderate sclerosis and atrophy of the glomeruli, vacuolation of the tubular epithelium, fibrosis, and infiltration of the leucocytes in the interstitium. The therapeutic protocol with hydrochlorothiazide, ACE inhibitor enalapril and β-blocker carvedilol reduced the myocardium hypertrophy and the valvular regurgitation; however, the prolonged use of diuretics jeopardized the renal function in our patient. Frequent blood analyses are necessary using diuretics in reptile patients.

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