Efficacy of two methods of intranasal administration of anaesthetic drugs in red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans)
E. Cermakova, V. Ceplecha, Z. Knotekhttps://doi.org/10.17221/74/2017-VETMEDCitation:Cermakova E., Ceplecha V., Knotek Z. (2018): Efficacy of two methods of intranasal administration of anaesthetic drugs in red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). Veterinarni Medicina, 63: 87-93.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of ketamine, dexmedetomidine, atipamezole and alfaxalone delivered by two methods of intranasal administration in terrapins. The two methods were used in 21 healthy adult female red-eared terrapins: (A) with fully extended neck and restrained head, (B) with head hidden inside the shell. Ketamine (10 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (0.2 mg/kg) were delivered using a micropipette in the left and the right naris, respectively. Atipamezole (2 mg/kg) was administered 60 minutes later. Heart rate, head withdrawal reflex, palpebral reflex, toe-pinch reflex on the pelvic limb and glottal control enabling the insertion of the tracheal tube were recorded at 10-minute intervals. After a washout period of six months, alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) was tested. The first measurement in the alfaxalone trial started 5 minutes after the drug was administered and continued at 10-minute intervals. Heart rate decreased significantly in response to both methods of ketamine and dexmedetomidine administration. There were no significant differences between methods in time to loss of reflexes and full recovery of reflexes. Intranasal administration of atipamezole enabled rapid return to full activity. Alfaxalone administration decreased heart rate non-significantly and did not result in loss of evaluated reflexes. Both methods of drug administration of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and atipamezole resulted in a safe form of sedation and recovery. Intranasal administration of 5 mg/kg of alfaxalone was not effective.Keywords:
chelonians; anaesthesia; monitoring; heart rate; reflexesReferences:
Al-Shebani WHS (2011): The sedative effect of intranasal administration of some sedative agents in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences 4, 171–177.Bennett RA (1991): A review of anaesthesia and chemical restraint in reptiles. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22, 282–303.Chu CC, Wang HC, Wu RS (2014): A rare case: surgical management of cystolithiasis in a domestic bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata). Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of ARAV, Orlando, Florida. 146–148.Emery Lee, Parsons Georgia, Gerhardt Lillian, Schumacher Juergen, Souza Marcy (2014): Sedative Effects of Intranasal Midazolam and Dexmedetomidine in 2 Species of Tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria and Geochelone platynota). Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 23, 380-383 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jepm.2014.07.015Fleming GJ (2014): Crocodilians (Crocodiles, Alligators, Caiman, and Gharial). In: West G, Heard D, Caulkett N (eds): Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia. 2nd edn. John Wiley and Sons, Iowa. 325–336.Girden ER (ed.) (1992): ANOVA: Repeated Measures. Sage Publications, Newbury Park. 84 pp.Greer LL, Jenne KJ, Diggs HE (2001): Medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 40, 9–11.Jia J.-E., Chen J.-Y., Hu X., Li W.-X. (2013): A randomised study of intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral ketamine for premedication in children. Anaesthesia, 68, 944-949 https://doi.org/10.1111/anae.12312Kischinovsky Michelle, Duse Anna, Wang Tobias, Bertelsen Mads F (2013): Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) – effects of dose and body temperature. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40, 13-20 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2012.00745.xKnotek Z. (2014): Alfaxalone as an induction agent for anaesthesia in terrapins and tortoises. Veterinary Record, 175, 327-327 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.102486Knotek Z, Cermakova E (2014): The practical use of intranasal anesthesia in tortoises and terrapins. Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of ARAV, Orlando, Florida. 67 pp.Malinovsky J M, Servin F, Cozian A, Lepage J Y, Pinaud M (1996): Ketamine and norketamine plasma concentrations after i.v., nasal and rectal administration in children. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 77, 203-207 https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/77.2.203Mans Christoph, Guzman David Sanchez-Migallon, Lahner Lesanna L., Paul-Murphy Joanne, Sladky Kurt K. (2012): Sedation and Physiologic Response to Manual Restraint After Intranasal Administration of Midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 26, 130-139 https://doi.org/10.1647/2011-037R.1McArthur S, Wilkinson R, Meyer J (eds) (2004): Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell, Oxford. 579 pp.Moghadam AZ, Sadegh AB, Sharifi S, Habibian S (2009): Comparison of intranasal administration of diazepam, midazolam and xylazine in pigeons: clinical evaluation. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Sciences Technology 1, 19–26.Mosley Craig A.E. (2005): Anesthesia and Analgesia in Reptiles. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, 14, 243-262 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.saep.2005.09.005Nevarez J (2009): Lizards. In: Mitchell MA, Tully TN (eds): Manual of Exotic Pet Practice. 1st edn. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis. 164–206.Olsson Annabelle, Phalen David (2012): Preliminary studies of chemical immobilization of captive juvenile estuarine (Crocodylus porosus) and Australian freshwater (C. johnstoni) crocodiles with medetomidine and reversal with atipamezole. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 39, 345-356 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2012.00721.xRawat HS, Saraf RS, Sunil Kumar V (2014): Effects of intranasal midazolam as premedication in paediatric anaesthesia – clinical study. Pediatric Anesthesia and Critical Care Journal 2, 112–121.Robertson SA, Eberhart S (1994): Efficacy of the intranasal route for administration of anesthetic agents to adult rabbits. Laboratory Animal Science Journal 44, 159–165.Schnellbacher Rodney W., Hernandez Sonia M., Tuberville Tracey D., Mayer Joerg, Alhamhoom Yahya, Arnold Robert D. (2012): The Efficacy of Intranasal Administration of Dexmedetomidine and Ketamine to Yellow-Bellied Sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta). Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery, 22, 91-98 https://doi.org/10.5818/1529-9651-22.3.91Schumacher J, Mans CH (2014): Anesthesia. In: Mader DR, Divers SJ (eds): Current Therapy in Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 1st edn. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis. 134–153.Shepard Molly K, Divers Stephen, Braun Christina, Hofmeister Erik H (2013): Pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after single‐dose intramuscular administration in red‐eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): a comparison of two different doses at two different ambient temperatures. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40, 590-598 https://doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12061Sladky KK, Mans C (2012): Clinical anesthesia in reptiles. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 21, 117–131.Vesal Nasser, Eskandari Mohammad H. (2006): Sedative effects of midazolam and xylazine with or without ketamine and detomidine alone following intranasal administration in Ring-necked Parakeets. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 228, 383-388 https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.228.3.383Vesal Nasser, Zare Payman (2006): Clinical evaluation of intranasal benzodiazepines, α2-agonists and their antagonists in canaries. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 33, 143-148 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2005.00244.xWalbergh Eric J., Wills Robert J., Eckhert Joanne (1991): Plasma Concentrations of Midazolam in Children Following Intranasal Administration. Anesthesiology, 74, 233-235 https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199102000-00007Weber Frank, Wulf Hinnerk, el Saeidi Ghada (2003): Premedication with nasal s-ketamine and midazolam provides good conditions for induction of anesthesia in preschool children. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 50, 470-475 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03021058Yuen Vivian M., Irwin Michael G., Hui Theresa W., Yuen Man K., Lee Libby H. Y. (2007): A Double-Blind, Crossover Assessment of the Sedative and Analgesic Effects of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 105, 374-380 https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000269488.06546.7c