Evaluation of a poly(lactic-acid) scaffold filled with poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite nanofibres for reconstruction of a segmental bone defect in a canine model

https://doi.org/10.17221/80/2019-VETMEDCitation:Yun J., Heo S., Lee M., Lee H. (2019): Evaluation of a poly(lactic-acid) scaffold filled with poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite nanofibres for reconstruction of a segmental bone defect in a canine model. Veterinarni Medicina, 64: 531-538.
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Critical-sized bone defects are a difficult problem in both human and veterinary medicine. To address this issue, synthetic graft materials have been garnering attention. Abundant in vitro studies have proven the possibilities of poly(lactic-acid) (PLA) scaffolds and poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HAp) nanofibres for treating bone defects. The present study aimed at conducting an in vivo assessment of the biological performance of a three dimensional (3D)-printed PLA scaffold filled with a PLGA/HAp nanofibrous scaffold to estimate its potential applications in bone defect reconstruction surgery. Defects were created in a 20 mm-long region of the radius bone. The defects created on the right side in six Beagle dogs (n = 6) were left untreated (Group 1). The defects on the left side (n = 6) were filled with 3D-printed PLA scaffolds incorporated with PLGA/Hap nanofibres with gelatine (Group 2). The other six Beagle dog defects were made bilaterally (n = 12) and filled with the same material as that used in Group 2 along with recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) (Group 3). Both the radiological and histological examinations were performed for observing the reaction of the scaffold and the bone. Micro-computed tomography (CT) was utilised for the evaluation of the bone parameters 20 weeks after the experiment. The radiological and histological results revealed that the scaffold was biodegradable and was replaced by new bone tissue. The micro-CT revealed that the bone parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in Group 3. Based on these results, our study serves as a foundation for future studies on bone defect treatment using synthetic polymeric scaffolds.

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