orcid , M Svoboda, Z Svobodova, I Nagl | Agricultural Journals" />

A case of diquat poisoning in pigs

https://doi.org/10.17221/87/2019-VETMEDCitation:Siroka Z., Svoboda M., Svobodova Z., Nagl I. (2019): A case of diquat poisoning in pigs. Veterinarni Medicina, 64: 505-511.
download PDF

Diquat is a bipyridyl compound which belongs to the group of herbicides. Its activity is based on the liberation of the superoxide anion radical and, subsequently, hydrogen peroxide, leading to tissue destruction by oxidative stress. Acute poisoning is associated with high mortality within several hours to a few days. The reported case of poisoning occurred on a commercial farm. The fattening pigs of the Landrace and Large White breeds were affected. The pigs were kept on a deep litter. Reglone (active ingredient diquat dibromide, 200 g/l) was used on the farm fields to desiccate the clover crop. The dry clover straw was harvested and stored for approximately a month and then used as a litter. In total, 50 pigs were affected. The onset of the poisoning was very fast. Within eight hours after the litter administration, 20 animals died. The only clinical sign seen was severe haemorrhagic dermatitis. The pathological examination revealed acute superficial haemorrhagic dermatitis on the belly, the snout and the ears of the affected pigs. Hyperaemia of the tonsils, pharynx and oesophagus was diagnosed, as well as a pronounced hyperaemia of the stomach fundus. In the distal part of the trachea, there was a dense, white foam. The lungs were congested, with focal emphysema. The liver was slightly hyperaemic. The histological examination revealed a massive haemostasis in liver and diffuse acute polymorphonuclear hepatitis. The other organs were without changes. The examination revealed acute poisoning caused by the large body surface areas contacting with a toxic substance. The pigs that survived were immediately removed to a non-contaminated area. The changes on their skin were not so extensive compared to the dead ones. Within 5–7 days after the exposure to diquat, the skin lesions healed.

References:
Abe T, Kinda T, Takano Y, Chikazawa S, Higuchi M, Kawasaki N, Orino K, Watanabe K (2006): Relationship between body iron stores and diquat toxicity in male Fischer-344 rats. Biometals 19, 651–657. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10534-006-9002-6
 
Balla F (1986): Occurrence of subacute Reglone (diquat) poisoning of cattle and sheep. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 41, 675–678.
 
Cessna A (1991): Diquat residues in lentil following preharvest treatment. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 71, 413–418. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps91-057
 
CHEMM (2019): CHEMM – Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: chemm.nlm.nih.gov/burns.htm (Accessed May 15, 2019).
 
Clark DG, Hurst EW (1970): The toxicity of diquat. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 27, 1–55.
 
Crabtree HC, Lock EA, Rose MS (1977): Effects of diquat on the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 41, 585–595. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-008X(77)80012-4
 
EFSA – European Food Safety Authority (2015): EFSA – Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs) for diquat according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. EFSA Journal 13, 3972. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.3972
 
Fu Y, Sies H, Lei XG (2001): Opposite roles of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase-1 in superoxide generator diquat- and peroxynitrite induced apoptosis and signaling. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 43004–43009. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M106946200
 
Jones GM, Vale JA (2000): Mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, and management of diquat poisoning: a review. Journal of Toxicology and Clinical Toxicology 38, 123–128. https://doi.org/10.1081/CLT-100100926
 
Lorgue G, Lechenet J, Riviere J (1996): Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. 1st edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. 216 p.
 
Magalhaes N, Carvalho F, Dinis-Oliveira RJ (2018): Human and experimental toxicology of diquat poisoning: Toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, and treatment. Human and Experimental Toxicology 37, 1131–1160. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327118765330
 
Pateiro-Moure M, Arias-Estevez M, Simal-Gandara J (2013): Critical review on the environmental fate of quaternary ammonium herbicides in soils devoted to vineyards. Environmental Science and Technology 47, 4984−4998. https://doi.org/10.1021/es400755h
 
Saeed SAM, Wilks MF, Coupe M (2001): Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding. Postgraduate Medical Journal 77, 329–332. https://doi.org/10.1136/pmj.77.907.329
 
Tsamadou A, Fountas K, Sofidiotou V, Kalostou A, Papathanassiou V, Zoniou S, Neou P (2009): Intentional ingestion of diquat: A case report with fatal outcome. Clinical Toxicology 47, 508.
 
Vanholder R, Colardyn F, DeReuck J, Praet M, Lameire N, Ringoir S (1981): Diquat intoxication: Report of two cases and review of the literature. The American Journal of Medicine 70, 1267–1271. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(81)90836-6
 
Whiting TL, Smyrl T, Spearman JG, Kernatz S (2001): Diquat poisoning of dairy cattle by topical application. Canadian Veterinary Journal 42, 799–801.
 
Williams FN, Herndon DN, Hawkins HK, Lee JO, Cox RA, Kulp GA, Finnerty CC, Chinkes DL, Jeschke MG (2009): The leading causes of death after burn injury in a single pediatric burn center. Critical Care 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/cc8170
 
Yin J, Liu M, Ren W, Duan J, Yang G, Zhao Y, Fang R. Chen L, Li T, Yin Y (2015): Effects of dietary supplementation with glutamate and aspartate on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets. PloS One 10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122893
 
Zhang L, Wei W, Xu J, Min F, Wang L, Wang X, Cao S, Tan DX, Qi W, Reiter RJ (2006): Inhibitory effect of melatonin on diquat-induced lipid peroxidation in vivo as assessed by the measurement of F2-isoprostanes. Journal of Pineal Research 40, 326–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2005.00311.x
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences