Causes of spontaneous death and euthanasia in dogs: A background study in Bahia, Brazil

Freitas JL, Andrade TS, Martins Filho EF, D’Soares CS, Souza ACSN, Silva AWO, Leal PV, Peixoto TC (2021):  Causes of spontaneous death and euthanasia in dogs: A background study in Bahia, Brazil. Vet Med-Czech 66, 156–166.

download PDF

Understanding the causes of death in dogs enhances the diagnostic capabilities of veterinarians, as well as reduces animal mortality. Studies on this topic assist in the control and prophylaxis of epidemics and in structuring public health programmes. In total, 1 355 necropsy reports of dogs filed at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory of the Federal University of Bahia, Northeast, Brazil (2005–2017) were analysed. The epidemiological information and anatomopathological diagnoses were obtained. The diagnosed diseases were classified into 10 categories. The frequency of the zoonoses, the overall age of the death (AD) of the dogs, and the AD of the dogs for each disease category were determined. Infectious and parasitic diseases were the most frequent primary causes of death in puppies (44.62%) and adult dogs (26.52%). In elderly dogs, most deaths occurred due to neoplasms (42.37%). Distemper (10.46%) was the most prevalent condition. A high frequency of zoonoses (6.12%) and a high death rate caused by diseases that could have been prevented (15.06%), such as distemper, parvovirus and canine visceral leishmaniasis, were reported. The AD in the population studied was eight years. The results confirmed the hypothesis of a high death rate in dogs in the state of Bahia, Northeast, Brazil, because of preventable infectious diseases.

Adams VJ, Evans KM, Sampson J, Wood JL. Methods and mortality results of a health survey of purebred dogs in the UK. J Small Anim Pract. 2010 Oct;51(10):512-24.
Barros CSL. Guia da tecnica de necropsia dos mamiferos domesticos [Guide to necropsy technique of domestic mammals]. Santa Maria, RS: Central Library – UFSM; 1988. 47 p. Portuguese.
Bentubo HDL, Tomaz MA, Bondan EF, Lallo MA. Expectativa de vida e causas de morte em caes na area metropolitana de Sao Paulo (Brasil) [Life expectancy and causes of death in dogs in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. Cienc Rural. 2007;37(4):1021-6. Portuguese.
Bonnett BN, Egenvall A, Olson P, Hedhammar A. Mortality in insured Swedish dogs: Rates and causes of death in various breeds. Vet Rec. 1997 Jul 12;141(2):40-4.
Bonnett BN, Egenvall A, Hedhammar A, Olson P. Mortality in over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs from 1995–2000: I. Breed-, gender-, age- and cause-specific rates. Acta Vet Scand. 2005;46(3):105-20.
Cassali GD, Damasceno KA, Bertagnolli AC, Estrela-Lima A, Lavalle GE, Di Santis GW, De Nardi AB, Fernandes CG, Cogliati B, Sobral R, Costa FVA, Ferreira E, Salgado BS, Campos CB, D’Assis MJMH, Silva LP, Machado MCA, Firmo BF, Nunes FC, Nakagaki KYR. Consensus regarding the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of canine mammary tumors: Benign mixed tumors, carcinomas in mixed tumors and carcinosarcomas. Braz J Vet Pathol. 2017;10(3):87-99.
Chew DJ, Dibartola SP, Schenck PA. Chronic kidney failure. In: Chew DJ, Dibartola SP, Schenck PA, editors. Urology and nephrology of the dog and the cat. 5th ed. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil: Elsevier; 2011. p. 145-96.
Coura-Vital W, Leal GGA, Marques LA, Pinheiro ADC, Carneiro M, Reis AB. Effectiveness of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars on the incidence of canine infection by Leishmania infantum: A large scale intervention study in an endemic area in Brazil. PLoS One. 2018 Dec 10;13(12):e0208613.
Craig LE. Cause of death in dogs according to breed: A necropsy survey of five breeds. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2001 Sep-Oct;37(5):438-43.
Davis H, Irwin P, Richardson M, O’Brien-Malone A. When a pet dies: Religious issues, euthanasia and strategies for coping with bereavement. Anthrozoos. 2003;16(1):57-74.
Day MJ, Horzinek MC, Schultz RD, Squires RA. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats. Compiled by the group of vaccination guidelines (VGG) of the world veterinary association for small animals (WSAVA). J Small Anim Pract. 2016;57:1-50.
Fernandes CB, Junior JT, de Jesus C, Souza BM, Larangeira DF, Fraga DB, Tavares Veras PS, Barrouin-Melo SM. Comparison of two commercial vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from endemic areas: IgG, and subclasses, parasitism, and parasite transmission by xenodiagnosis. Vaccine. 2014 Mar 5;32(11):1287-95.
Ferreira MVP, Mendes VHS, Camurca TB, Lemos LDQ, Silva OG, Costa CT, Queiroz TS. Necropsia: Valor diagnostico [Necropsy: Diagnostic value]. Rev Med UFC. 2018;58(2):31-5. Portuguese.
Fighera RA, Souza TM, Silva MC, Brum JS, Graca DL, Kommers GD, Irigoyen LF, Barros CSL. Causas de morte e razoes para eutanasia de caes da Mesorregiao do Centro Ocidental Rio-Grandense (1965–2004) [Causes of death and reasons for the euthanasia of dogs from the Midwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (1965–2004)]. Pesqui Vet Bras. 2008;28(4):223-30. Portuguese.
Furian M, Sandei CFC, Rocha EJN, Lot RFE. Estudo retrospectivo dos tumores mamarios em caninos e felinos atendidos no hospital veterinario da famed entre 2003 a 2007 [Retrospective study of mammary tumors in canines and felines attended at famed veterinary hospital between 2003 to 2007]. Rev Cient Elet Med Vet. 2007;65:773-82.
Goldston R, Hoskins J. Geriatria e gerontologia do cao e do gato [Geriatrics and gerontology of the dogs and cats]. 1st ed. São Paulo, SP, Brazil: Roca; 1999. 448 p. Portuguese.
Grimaldi G Jr, Teva A, Dos-Santos CB, Santos FN, Pinto ID, Fux B, Leite GR, Falqueto A. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates. PLoS One. 2017 Sep 27;12(9):e0185438.
Huang WH, Liao AT, Chu PY, Zhai SH, Yen IF, Liu CH. A 3-year surveillance on causes of death or reasons for euthanasia of domesticated dogs in Taiwan. Prev Vet Med. 2017 Nov 1;147:1-10.
IBGE. National health survey 2013: Access to and use of health services, accidents and violence: Brazil, large regions and states IBGE. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil: IBGE; 2015. 98 p.
Inoue M, Hasegawa A, Hosoi Y, Sugiura K. A current life table and causes of death for insured dogs in Japan. Prev Vet Med. 2015 Jun 15;120(2):210-8.
Kajita M, Katayama H, Murata T, Kai C, Hori M, Ozaki H. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis through caspase-3 and -8 activation in vero cells. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006 Aug;53(6):273-7.
Kim E, Choe C, Yoo JG, Oh SI, Jung Y, Cho A, Kim S, Do YJ. Major medical causes by breed and life stage for dogs presented at veterinary clinics in the Republic of Korea: A survey of electronic medical records. PeerJ. 2018 Jul 3;6:e5161.
Kitchell BE. Cancer e sua terapia [Cancer and its therapy]. In: Goldston RT, Hoskins JD, editors. Geriatria e gerontologia do cao e do gato [Geriatrics and gerontology of the dogs and cats]. 1st ed. São Paulo, SP, Brazil: Rocca; 1999. p. 51-70. Portuguese.
Klopfenstein M, Howard J, Rossetti M, Geissbuhler U. Life expectancy and causes of death in Bernese mountain dogs in Switzerland. BMC Vet Res. 2016 Jul 25;12(1):153.
Leite BMM, Solca MDS, Santos LCS, Coelho LB, Amorim LDAF, Donato LE, Passos SMS, Almeida AO, Veras PST, Fraga DBM. The mass use of deltamethrin collars to control and prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis: A field effectiveness study in a highly endemic area. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 May 14;12(5):e0006496.
Lewis TW, Wiles BM, Llewellyn-Zaidi AM, Evans KM, O’Neill DG. Longevity and mortality in Kennel Club registered dog breeds in the UK in 2014. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2018 Oct 17;5:10.
Maranhao OR, Marlet JM. Autopsias inconclusivas [Inconclusive autopsies]. Rev da Fac Direito da Univ Sao Paulo. 1987;82:140-7. Portuguese.
Mazzatenta A, Carluccio A, Robbe D, Giulio CD, Cellerino A. The companion dog as a unique translational model for aging. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2017 Oct;70:141-53.
Michell AR. Longevity of British breeds of dog and its relationships with sex, size, cardiovascular variables and disease. Vet Rec. 1999 Nov 27;145(22):625-9.
Ministry of Health. Manual de vigilancia e controle da leishmaniose visceral [Manual for surveillance and control of visceral leishmaniasis]. Brasilia, DF, Brazil: Ministry of Health, 2014. 120 p. Protuguese.
Moore GE, Burkman KD, Carter MN, Peterson MR. Causes of death or reasons for euthanasia in military working dogs: 927 cases (1993–1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jul 15;219(2):209-14.
Moore GE, Lund E. Disease reporting and surveillance: Where do companion animal diseases fit in? Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2009 Mar;39(2):225-40.
Municipal Health Secretariat of Salvador. Zoonoses [Zoonoses] [Internet]. 2019 [accessed 8 Aug 2019]. Avaliable at: cidadao/zoonoses/#popupid-43. Portuguese.
Olsen TF, Allen AL. Causes of sudden and unexpected death in dogs: A 10-year retrospective study. Can Vet J. 2000;41(11):873-5.
O’Neill DG, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England. Vet J. 2013 Dec;198(3):638-43.
O’Neill DG, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC. Longevity and mortality of cats attending primary care veterinary practices in England. J Feline Med Surg. 2015 Feb;17(2):125-33.
Panigassi LFN, Maiorka PC. Canine distemper. In: Jerico MM, Neto JPA, Kogika MM, editors. Internal medicine treaty for dogs and cats. 1st ed. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil: Rocca; 2017. p. 805-7.
Paulin S, Frenais R, Thomas E, Baldwin PM. Laboratory assessment of the anti-feeding effect for up to 12 months of a slow release deltamethrin collar (Scalibor®) against the sand fly Phlebotomus perniciosus in dogs. Parasit Vectors. 2018 Sep 27;11(1):529.
Pires MA, Travassos FS, Pires I. Neoplasias em canideos – Um estudo descritivo de 6 anos [Dog’s neoplasia – A six years descriptive study]. Rev Port Cienc Vet. 2003;98(547):111-8. Portuguese.
Polzin DJ. Evidence-based step-wise approach to managing chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2013 Mar-Apr;23(2):205-15.
Portela VAB, Lima TM, Maia RCC. Cinomose canina: Revisao de literatura [Canine distemper: Literature review]. Med Vet (UFRPE). 2017;11(3):162-71. Portuguese.
Proschowsky HF, Rugbjerg H, Ersboll AK. Morbidity of purebred dogs in Denmark. Prev Vet Med. 2003a Apr 30;58(1-2):53-62.
Proschowsky HF, Rugbjerg H, Ersboll AK. Mortality of purebred and mixed-breed dogs in Denmark. Prev Vet Med. 2003b Apr 30;58(1-2):63-74.
Scandar SAS, Silva RA, Cardoso-Junior RP, Oliveira FH. Ocorrencia de leishmaniose visceral americana na regiao de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil [Occurrence of American visceral leishmaniasis in the region of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil]. BEPA Bol Epidemiol Paul. 2011;8(88):13-22. Portuguese.
Tartarotti AL, Donini MA, Anjos C, Ramos RR. Vigilancia de reservatorios caninos [Surveillance of canine reservoirs] [Internet]. Bol Epidemiol. 2011;13(1):1-3. Portuguese.
Thomaz-Soccol V, Castro EA, Navarro IT, Farias MR, Souza LM, Carvalho Y, Bispo S, Membrive NA, Minozzo JC, Truppel J, Bueno W, Luz E. Casos aloctones de leishmaniose visceral canina no Parana, Brasil: Implicacoes epidemiologicas [Allochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Parana, Brazil: Epidemiological im-plications]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2009;18(3):46-51. Portuguese.
Toribio JMML, Neto JMC, Bavia ME, Lima AES, Cardim LL, Carneiro DDMT, Filho EFM, Ribeiro LGR. Deteccao de aglomerados espaciais de casos de neoplasia mamaria em caes no municipio de Salvador, Bahia [Detection of spatial clusters for breast cancer in canines in the city of Salvador, Bahia]. Ciênc Rur. 2012;42(1):98-104. Portuguese.
Trapp SM, Iacuzio AI, Barca Junior FA, Kemper B, da Silva LC, Okano W, Tanaka NM, Grecco FCAR, Cunha Filho LFC, Sterza FAM. Causas de obito e razoes para eutanasia em uma populacao hospitalar de caes e gatos [Causes of death and reasons for euthanasia in a hospital population of dogs and cats]. Braz J Vet Res An Sci. 2010;47(5):395-402. Portuguese.
Yeates JW, Main DC. Veterinary opinions on refusing euthanasia: Justifications and philosophical frameworks. Vet Rec. 2011 Mar 12;168(10):263.
Zaidan Dagli ML. The search for suitable prognostic markers for canine mammary tumors: A promising outlook. Vet J. 2008 Jul;177(1):3-5.
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti