Incidence of bovine tuberculosis in wild and domestic animals other than cattle in six Central European countries during 1990–1999
I. Pavlik, M. Machackova, W. Yayo Ayele, J. Lamka, I. Parmova, I. Melicharek, M. Hanzlikova, B. Körmendy, G. Nagy, Z. Cvetnic, M. Ocepek, M. Lipiechttps://doi.org/10.17221/5815-VETMEDCitation:Pavlik I., Machackova M., Yayo Ayele W., Lamka J., Parmova I., Melicharek I., Hanzlikova M., Körmendy B., Nagy G., Cvetnic Z., Ocepek M., Lipiec M. (2002): Incidence of bovine tuberculosis in wild and domestic animals other than cattle in six Central European countries during 1990–1999. Veterinarni Medicina, 47: 122-131.
The study was undertaken in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia laying between Baltic and Adriatic seas on 610 402 km2. Mycobacterium bovis infection was diagnosed in 70 animals belonging to 17 species other than cattle. The set of wild animals comprised 12 European bison (Bison bonasus), one red deer (Cervus elaphus), five wild boars (Sus scrofa), and one European wild goat (Capra aegagrus) bred in a game park. Further positive animals included two farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one bactrian camel (Camelus ferus) owned by a circus. The infection was also demonstrated in 18 domestic animals belonging to 3 species living on farms where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in cattle. This set included 12 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica), two domestic sheep (Ovis ammon f. aries), and four dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris). The set of animals bred in zoological gardens consisted of 30 animals belonging to 9 species as follows: three bison (Bison bison), four tapirs (Tapirus terrestris), one cassowary (Casuarius casuarius – isolate identified by the biological assay in guinea pigs only), eight sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei), three elands (Taurotragus oryx), one gnu (Connochaetes taurinus), eight reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadlis reticulata), one puma (Puma concolor), and one Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (Sus bucculentus). Although, considering the population sizes, absolute numbers of the infected individuals are rather low, wild animals or such animals bred in captivity should be regarded as possible reservoirs of the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Tests for bovine tuberculosis are therefore necessary before transportation of all wild animals. Any lesion arousing suspicion of tuberculosis found on necropsy of wild animals must be laboratory examined for the presence of mycobacteria.Keywords:
Mycobacterium bovis; veterinary epidemiology; zoological gardens; game parks; farmed deer; wild animals