Detection of bovine and human tuberculosis in cattle and other animals in six Central European countries during the years 2000–2004
I. Pavlik, I. Trcka, I. Parmova, J. Svobodova, I. Melicharek, G. Nagy, Z. Cvetnic, M. Ocepek, M. Pate, M. Lipiechttps://doi.org/10.17221/5626-VETMEDCitation:Pavlik I., Trcka I., Parmova I., Svobodova J., Melicharek I., Nagy G., Cvetnic Z., Ocepek M., Pate M., Lipiec M. (2005): Detection of bovine and human tuberculosis in cattle and other animals in six Central European countries during the years 2000–2004. Veterinarni Medicina, 50: 291-299.
During a five year period (2000–2004), the incidence of bovine and human tuberculosis in cattle and other animals from six Central European countries was evaluated: Croatia (HRV), the Czech Republic (CZE), Hungary (HUN), Poland (POL), Slovakia (SVK), and Slovenia (SVN). These countries, lying between the Baltic and the Adriatic seas, cover an area of 610 402 km2 and had more than 68 million inhabitants and 9 330 264 cattle in 2003. Successful national control programmes against bovine tuberculosis in cattle were carried out up until 1980: HRV (1953–1966), CZE (1959–1968), HUN (1962–1980), POL (1959–1975) SVK (1959–1968), and SVN (1962–1973). During the entire monitored period skin testing with bovine tuberculin in all cattle older than two years was carried out regularly either once a year or every second year. Five of these countries (CZE, HUN, POL, SVK, and SVN) joined the EC on May 1st, 2004. CZE and SVK were officially declared free of bovine tuberculosis in cattle on March 31st, 2004 (Commission Decision No. 2004/320/EC) and March 4th, 2005 (Commission Decision No. 2005/179/EC), respectively. Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in a total of 188 cattle herds in the study area: 145 (77.1%) outbreaks in small herds (< 10 cows) and 43 (22.9%) outbreaks in large herds (≥ 10 cows). The last cases of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in SVK and in the CZE were diagnosed in 1993 and 1995, respectively. During the monitored period, bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in animal species other than cattle found in zoological gardens: in two Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus) in the CZK, in one Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris f. altaica) in HUN, in one bison (Bison bison) and one eland (Taurotragus oryx) in POL, and in one dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and two bison in SVN. In wild animals, bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in HUN (n = 14) and HRV (n = 1), in six red deer (Cervus elaphus) in HUN, in 14 European bison (Bison bonasus f. bonasus) and two roe deer (Capreolus capreolus f. capreolus) in POL. Infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis were also diagnosed in four cattle and two pigs in POL, in one cattle in SVN, in one dog (Canis lupus f. familiaris) in the CZE and in one dog in HUN. M. africanum was diagnosed in one hyrax (Procaria habessinica) in a zoological garden in HRV.Keywords:
veterinary epidemiology; zoonosis; Mycobacterium caprae; human tuberculosis; bovine tuberculosis