Nitrite influence on fish: a review
H. Kroupova, J. Machova, Z. Svobodovahttps://doi.org/10.17221/5650-VETMEDCitation:Kroupova H., Machova J., Svobodova Z. (2005): Nitrite influence on fish: a review. Veterinarni Medicina, 50: 461-471.
Nitrite is an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate. An elevated ambient nitrite concentration is a potential problem for freshwater fish since nitrite is actively taken up across the gills in competition with chloride. Nitrite is a well-known toxicant for fish as well as a disrupter of multiple physiological functions including ion regulatory, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine and excretory processes. One critical consequence of nitrite accumulation is the oxidation of haemoglobin to methaemoglobin, compromising blood oxygen transport. Nitrite toxicity to fish varies considerably and depends on a large number of external and internal factors. Among the most important ones are water quality (e.g. pH, temperature, cation, anion and oxygen concentration), length of exposure, fish species, fish size and age, and individual fish susceptibility. Chloride concentration in water is considered one of the most important factors influencing nitrite toxicity to fish. The importance of individual factors is assessed and re-evaluated continuously.Keywords:
nitrite; fishes; toxicity mechanism; aquatic environment; physiological disturbances; water quality; age; length of exposure