Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan): a review
J. Necas, L. Bartosikova, P. Brauner, J. Kolarhttps://doi.org/10.17221/1930-VETMEDCitation:Necas J., Bartosikova L., Brauner P., Kolar J. (2008): Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan): a review. Veterinarni Medicina, 53: 397-411.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high molecular weight biopolysacharide, discovered in 1934, by Karl Meyer and his assistant, John Palmer in the vitreous of bovine eyes. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring biopolymer, which has important biological functions in bacteria and higher animals including humans. It is found in most connective tissues and is particularly concentrated in synovial fluid, the vitreous fluid of the eye, umbilical cords and chicken combs. It is naturally synthesized by a class of integral membrane proteins called hyaluronan synthases, and degraded by a family of enzymes called hyaluronidases. This review describes metabolisms, different physiological and pathological functions, basic pharmacological properties, and the clinical use of hyaluronic acid.Keywords:hyaluronic acid; metabolism; toxicity