Nitrofuran antibiotics: a review on the application, prohibition and residual analysis
M. Vass, K. Hruska, M. Franekhttps://doi.org/10.17221/1979-VETMEDCitation:Vass M., Hruska K., Franek M. (2008): Nitrofuran antibiotics: a review on the application, prohibition and residual analysis. Veterinarni Medicina, 53: 469-500.
Nitrofuran antibiotics, employed for the treatment of bacterial diseases in livestock production, were banned from use in the European Union (EU) in 1995 due to concerns about the carcinogenicity of their residues in edible tissue. This review provides an overview of nitrofuran toxicity, metabolism, and also specific aspects of legislation surrounding their prohibition. Special attention is devoted to semicarbazide – a nitrofuran metabolite and food contaminant. Analytical procedures for nitrofuran analysis in various matrices and validation requirements for screening and confirmation methods with respect to EU regulations are also reviewed.Keywords:nitrofurans; tissue bound metabolites; semicarbazide; bioavailability; mutagenicity; legislation; sample preparation; validation; detection methods