Genetic basis of resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds – the qac genes and their role: a review
Z. Jaglic, D. Cervinkovahttps://doi.org/10.17221/6013-VETMEDCitation:Jaglic Z., Cervinkova D. (2012): Genetic basis of resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds – the qac genes and their role: a review. Veterinarni Medicina, 57: 275-281.
Although the qac genes are named after one of their main substrates (i.e., quaternary ammonium compounds), these genes also code for resistance to a broad spectrum of other cationic compounds such as intercalating dyes, diamidines and biguanides. The various Qac proteins are involved in relatively low specific efflux-based multidrug pumps and belong to a family of small multidrug resistance proteins. Even though the practical significance of qac-mediated resistance lies mainly in resistance to antiseptics, contradictory findings on this issue are still reported. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge on qac-mediated resistance with special emphasis on resistance to antiseptics and its relevance for practice.
antimicrobial; disinfectant; biocide; benzalkonium; chlorhexidine; cation; susceptibility