NeemAzal T/S – toxicity to early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

https://doi.org/10.17221/7922-VETMEDCitation:Chromcova L., Blahova J., Zivna D., Plhalova L., Casuscelli di Tocco F., Divisova L., Prokes M., Faggio C., Tichy F., Svobodova Z. (2015): NeemAzal T/S – toxicity to early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Veterinarni Medicina, 60: 23-30.
download PDF
In the European Union, the use of the insecticide NeemAzal T/S (standardised variant 1% of the active ingredient azadirachtin) is authorised in organic agriculture. The objective of this study was to determine the toxic effects of NeemAzal T/S at concentrations of 3, 10, 30, and 60 mg/lon the morphometric and condition characteristics, mortality, hatching, and histopathology of early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) as a non-target aquatic organism, as well as related effects of NeemAzal T/S on selected indices of oxidative stress in the same organism. The embryo-larval toxicity test was performed according to OECD Guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). NeemAzal T/S exposure induced slow hatching on the first day and increased cumulative mortality in groups exposed to the insecticide. No effect on morphometric or condition characteristics was observed after 31 days of exposure. Histopathological changes of the gills were found at the highest concentration of 60 mg/lof NeemAzal T/S. Exposure at 30 mg/lwas associated with significantly (P < 0.01) increased glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase (P < 0.05) activities compared to the control group. The content of oxidised lipids was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 3, 10, and 30 mg/l experimental groups than in the controls. NeemAzal T/S exerted a significant negative influence on histopathological parameters in the embryo and larvae of common carp, as well as on the indices of oxidative stress in the same organism.
References:
Aebi H (1984): Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology 105, 121–126.
 
Ansari BA, Sharma DK (2009): Toxic effect of synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin and neem based formulation Achook on zebrafish, Danio rerio. Trends in Biosciences 2, 18–20.
 
Bhat IA, Bhat BA, Vishwakarma S, Verma A, Saxena G (2012): Acute Toxicity and Behavioural Responses of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) to a Biopesticide “NEEM-ON”. Current World Environment 7, 175–178. 
 
Blahová Jana, Plhalová Lucie, Hostovský Martin, Divišová Lenka, Dobšíková Radka, Mikulíková Ivana, Štěpánová Stanislava, Svobodová Zdeňka (2013): Oxidative stress responses in zebrafish Danio rerio after subchronic exposure to atrazine. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 61, 82-85  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.02.041
 
Butterworth JH, Morgan ED (1968): Isolation of a substance that suppresses feeding in locusts. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, 23–24.
 
Carlberg I, Mannervik B (1975): Purification and characterization of the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase from rat liver. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 250, 5475–5480.
 
Di Giulio RT, Meyer JN (2008): Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. In: Di Giulio, RT, Hinton EE (eds.): The Toxicology of Fishes. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton. 273–324.
 
Dubey NK, Shukla R, Kumar A, Singh P, Prakash B (2010): Prospects of botanical pesticides in sustainable agriculture. Current Science 98, 479–480. 
 
Flohe L, Gunzler WA (1984): Assays of glutathione peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology 105, 114–121.
 
Girish K, Shankara BS (2008): Neem – A Green Treasure. Electronic Journal of Biology. 4, 102–111.
 
Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB (1974): Glutathione S-transferases. First enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 249, 7130–7139.
 
Hutchinson Thomas H., Solbe John, Kloepper-Sams Pamela J. (1998): Analysis of the ecetoc aquatic toxicity (EAT) database III — Comparative toxicity of chemical substances to different life stages of aquatic organisms. Chemosphere, 36, 129-142  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)10025-X
 
Chromcova L, Blahova J, Plhalova L, Zivna D, Stepanova S, Praskova E, Prokes M, Zelnickova L, Skoric M, Svobodova Z (2013): The effects of atrazine exposure on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Neuroendocrinology Letters 34, 95–101.
 
Kocour Martin, Gela David, Rodina Marek, Linhart Otomar (2005): Testing of performance in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. under pond husbandry conditions I: top-crossing with Northern mirror carp. Aquaculture Research, 36, 1207-1215  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01340.x
 
Kumar Abhishek, Prasad ManiRam, Mishra Diwakar, Srivastav Sunil K., Srivastav Ajai K. (2011): Botanical pesticide, azadirachtin attenuates blood electrolytes of a freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 99, 170-173  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2010.11.014
 
Kumar A, Prasad M, Mishra D, Srivastav SK, Srivastav AK (2012): Acute toxicity of azadirachtin to a teleost, Heteropneustes fotilis. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 2, 213–216.
 
Lesser Michael P. (2006): OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS: Biochemistry and Physiological Ecology. Annual Review of Physiology, 68, 253-278  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.physiol.68.040104.110001
 
Lushchak Volodymyr I., Bagnyukova Tetyana V., Lushchak Oleh V., Storey Janet M., Storey Kenneth B. (2005): Hypoxia and recovery perturb free radical processes and antioxidant potential in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 37, 1319-1330  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2005.01.006
 
Mondal D, Barat S, Mukhopadhyay MK (2007): Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal. Journal of Environmental Biology 28, 119–122.
 
Mordue (Luntz) A.J., Blackwell A. (1993): Azadirachtin: an update. Journal of Insect Physiology, 39, 903-924  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(93)90001-8
 
Mousa, MMA, El-Ashram AMM, Hamed M (2008): Effect of Neem Leaf Extract on Freshwater Fishes and Zooplankton Community. In: 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, The Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Cairo, Egypt. 307–318.
 
Mutawie HH, Hegazi AM (2011): The protective role of brown alga (Sargassum crassifolia) against the degenerative toxic effects induced by Nimbecidin in muscles of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Journal of American Science 7, 479–488.
 
OECD – Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2013): Test No. 210: Fish, early-life stage toxicity test, OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals, Section 2. OECD Publishing, Paris, France.
 
Penaz M, Prokes M, Kouril J, Hamackova J (1983): Early development of the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universita 17, 1–39.
 
Pest Management Regulatory Agency (2012): Registration decision RD2012-33. NeemAzal technical containing azadirachtin. Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency, Ontario, Canada.
 
Singh PK, Ansari BA (2010): Effect of neem-based formulations (Nimbecidine and Ultineem) on the sparing success of zebrafish Danio rerio (Cyprinidae). Bioscan 5, 669–672.
 
Smith P.K., Krohn R.I., Hermanson G.T., Mallia A.K., Gartner F.H., Provenzano M.D., Fujimoto E.K., Goeke N.M., Olson B.J., Klenk D.C. (1985): Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid. Analytical Biochemistry, 150, 76-85  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(85)90442-7
 
Stalin SI, Kiruba S, Manohar Das SS (2008): A comparative study on the toxicity of a synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin and a neem based pesticide, azadirachtin to Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 8, 1–5.
 
Stepanova Stanislava, Praskova Eva, Chromcova Lucie, Plhalova Lucie, Prokes Miroslav, Blahova Jana, Svobodova Zdenka (2013): The effects of diclofenac on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 35, 454-460  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2012.09.011
 
van der Oost Ron, Beyer Jonny, Vermeulen Nico P.E (2003): Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13, 57-149  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00126-6
 
Wan M. T., Watts R. G., Isman M. B., Strub R. (1996): Evaluation of the Acute Toxicity to Juvenile Pacific Northwest Salmon of Azadirachtin, Neem Extract, and Neem-Based Products. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 56, 432-439  https://doi.org/10.1007/s001289900062
 
Wiegand C., Pflugmacher S., Giese M., Frank H., Steinberg C. (2000): Uptake, Toxicity, and Effects on Detoxication Enzymes of Atrazine and Trifluoroacetate in Embryos of Zebrafish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 45, 122-131  https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1999.1845
 
Winkaler EU, Santos TR, Machado-Neto JG, Martinez CB (2007): Acute lethal and sublethal effects of neem leaf extract on the neotropical freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology and Pharmacology: CBP 145, 236–244.
 
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti