Serum luteinising hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol levels, libido and testicular histomorphology of male West African Dwarf goats orally or subcutaneously treated with monosodium l-glutamate
IS Ochiogu, D. Ogwu, CN Uchendu, CN Okoye, JI Ihedioha, EC Mbegbuhttps://doi.org/10.17221/8177-VETMEDCitation:Ochiogu I., Ogwu D., Uchendu C., Okoye C., Ihedioha J., Mbegbu E. (2015): Serum luteinising hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol levels, libido and testicular histomorphology of male West African Dwarf goats orally or subcutaneously treated with monosodium l-glutamate. Veterinarni Medicina, 60: 253-260.
This study investigated the effects of administration of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) on serum luteinising hormone, testosterone and cholesterol levels, libido and testicular histomorphology of male West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Thirty-two WAD goats (28 males and four females) were used for the study. The 28 males were randomly assigned to seven groups (A, BO, BS, CO, CS, DO and DS) of four goats each. Goats in groups BO, CO, and DO were given MSG orally at doses of 0.25, 0.50 and 1 g/kg body weight respectively for 28 days, while groups BS, CS and DS goats were given MSG subcutaneously at doses of 0.25, 0.50 and 1 g/kg body weight, respectively, for 28 days. Group A goats served as untreated control. The four female goats did not receive MSG, but were used to assess the levels of expression of libido by all the males. Serum luteinising hormone and testosterone were assayed prior to MSG administration (Day 0) and on Days 2, 14 and 28 of MSG administration, while serum cholesterol was assayed on Days 0, 14 and 28 of MSG administration. Libido scores and testicular histomorphology were evaluated on Days 26 and 28 of MSG administration, respectively. Results showed that on Days 14 and 28 of MSG administration the mean serum luteinising hormone, testosterone and cholesterol levels of the treated groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the control group. The mean libido scores of all the treated groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of the control. Sections of the testes of the male WAD goats that received varying doses of MSG orally or subcutaneously showed no obvious lesions; the seminiferous tubules and interstices were normal and comparable to those of the untreated control. It was concluded that MSG administration for up to 14 and 28 days led to a significant lowering of serum luteinising hormone, testosterone and cholesterol, as well as libido scores.Keywords:dietary supplements; flavouring agents; traditional means of castrating bucks; reproductive toxicityReferences:
Adamo N. J., Ratner A. (1970): Monosodium Glutamate: Lack of Effects on Brain and Reproductive Function in Rats. Science, 169, 673-674 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.169.3946.673Ahluwalia P., Malik V.B.T. (1989): Effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on serum lipids, blood glucose and cholesterol in adult male mice. Toxicology Letters, 45, 195-198 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(89)90009-XAllain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC (1974): Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry 20, 470–475.Bazzano G., D'Elia J. A., Olson R. E. (1970): Monosodium Glutamate: Feeding of Large Amounts in Man and Gerbils. Science, 169, 1208-1209 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.169.3951.1208Bishop Y (2005): The Veterinary Formulary. 6th ed. Cambridge University Press, UK.Chenoweth P.J. (1981): Libido and mating behavior in bulls, boars and rams. A review. Theriogenology, 16, 155-177 https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(81)90098-4Chenoweth PJ, Osborne HG (1975): Breed differences in the reproductive function of young beef bulls in Central Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal 51, 405–406.Das RS, Gosh SK (2010): Long term effects of monosodium glutamate on spermatogenesis in albino mice – A histological study. Nepal Medical College Journal 12, 149–153.Diéguez Carlos, Vazquez María J., Romero Amparo, López Miguel, Nogueiras Ruben (2011): Hypothalamic Control of Lipid Metabolism: Focus on Leptin, Ghrelin and Melanocortins. Neuroendocrinology, 94, 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1159/000328122Ekins RP (1998): Ligand assays: from electrophoresis to miniaturized microarrays. Clinical Chemistry 44, 2015–2030.Fernstrom JD (2000): Pituitary hormone secretion in normal male humans: acute responses to a large, oral dose of monosodium glutamate. Journal of Nutrition 130, 1053S–1057S.FSANZ – Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2003): Monosodium glutamate: A safety assessment. Canberra, Technical Report Series No. 20.Gall C (1996): Goat Breeds of the World. Margraf Verlag, Weikershein, Germany.Garlick PJ (2004): The nature of human hazards associated with excessive intake of amino acids. Journal of Nutrition 134, 1633S–1639S.Hawkins Richard A., DeJoseph M. Regina, Hawkins Paul A. (1995): Regional brain glutamate transport in rats at normal and raised concentrations of circulating glutamate. Cell & Tissue Research, 281, 207-214 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00583389Hinshelwood MM (1998): Steroidogenesis, overview. In: Neill JD, Knobil E (eds.): Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Vol. 4. Academic Press, New York, 644–653.Igwebuike UM, Nwankwo IA, Ochiogu IS (2010): Effects of oral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on serum testosterone levels and muscle mass development in male rats. Animal Research International 7, 1212–1217.Igwebuike UM, Ochiogu IS, Ihedinihu BC, Ikokide JE, Idika IK (2011): The effects of oral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the testicular morphology and cauda epididymal sperm reserves of young and adult male rats. Veterinarski Arhiv 81, 525–534.LEMKEY-JOHNSTON N., REYNOLDS W. A. (1974): NATURE AND EXTENT OF BRAIN LESIONS IN MICE RELATED TO INGESTION OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 33, 74-97 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005072-197401000-00006Linzell JL (1972): Milk yield, energy loss in milk, and mammary gland weight in different species. Dairy Science Abstract 34, 351–360.Nayanatara A, Vinodini NA, Damodar C, Ahemed B, Ramaswamy CR, Shabarinath M, Bhat MR (2008): Role of ascorbic acid in monosodium glutamate mediated effect on testicular weight, sperm morphology and sperm count in rat testis. Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine 3, 1–5.Nosseir NS, Ali MHM, Ebaid HM (2012): A histological and morphometric study of monosodium glutamate toxic effect on testicular structure and potentiality of recovery in adult albino rats. Research Journal of Biology 2, 66–78.PALKOVITS M., ARIMURA A., BROWNSTEIN M., SCHALLY A. V., SAAVEDRA J. M. (1974): Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LH-RH) Content of the Hypothalamic Nuclei in Rat. Endocrinology, 95, 554-558 https://doi.org/10.1210/endo-95-2-554Pizzi W., Barnhart J., Fanslow D. (1977): Monosodium glutamate admlinistration to the newborn reduces reproductive ability in female and male mice. Science, 196, 452-454 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.557837Raiten DJ, Talbot JM, Fisher KD (1995): Executive summary from the report: analysis of adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). Journal of Nutrition 125, 2892S–2906S.Redding T.W., Schally A.V., Arimura A., Wakabayashi I. (1971): Effect of Monosodium Glutamate on Some Endocrine Functions. Neuroendocrinology, 8, 245-255 https://doi.org/10.1159/000122011Samuels Adrienne (1999): The toxicity/safety of processed free glutamic acid (MSG): A study in suppression of information. Accountability in Research, 6, 259-310 https://doi.org/10.1080/08989629908573933TAFELSKI T. J. (1977): The Effects of a Single Injection of Monosodium Glutamate on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine Axis of the Female Hamster. Biology of Reproduction, 17, 404-411 https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod17.3.404