Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a highly contagious virus that is ubiquitous in multicat environments and may induce oxidative stress. This virus commonly causes an asymptomatic infection, which can persist in certain individuals. Sporadically and unpredictably, FCoV infection leads to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a highly fatal systemic immune-mediated disease. There are no data in the veterinary literature relating to oxidative stress in FCoV. Antioxidant capacity (TAC) can be attributed to single components in the defence systems against free radicals. The measurement of the total oxidant status (TOS) accurately reflects the oxidative status of blood plasma or serum. Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a free radical and contributes to host defences against oxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a reliable and commonly used marker of overall lipid peroxidation levels and the presence of oxidative stress. This study aimed to determine levels of oxidative stress markers, serum TAC, total oxidant capacity (TOC), NO and serum MDA in 24 cats seropositive for FCoVs and 15 cats seronegative for FCoVs. Significantly higher serum TOC, NO and MDA levels were found in seropositive animals (P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) than in seronegative animals. In contrast, serum TAC levels were found to be significantly lower in seropositive cats compared with seronegative cats (P < 0.001). The results of the present study suggest that FCoV seropositivity is associated with oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status.
Addie D. D., Jarrett O. (2001): Use of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for monitoring the shedding of feline coronavirus by healthy cats. Veterinary Record, 148, 649-653 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.148.21.649
Addie D. D. (2003): Persistence and transmission of natural type I feline coronavirus infection. Journal of General Virology, 84, 2735-2744 https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.19129-0
Allard JP, Aghdassi E, Chau J, Salit I, Walmsley S (1998): Oxidative stress and plasma antioxidant micronutrients in humans with HIV infection. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 143–147.
Atakisi E., Bozukluhan K., Atakisi O., Gokce H. I. (): Total oxidant and antioxidant capacities and nitric oxide levels in cattle with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Veterinary Record, 167, 908-909 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.c3664
Bartosz G (1996): Peroxy nitrite: mediator of the toxic action of nitric oxide. Acta Biochimica Polonica 43, 645–659.
Benencia , Courreges (1999): Nitric oxide and macrophage antiviral extrinsic activity. Immunology, 98, 363-370 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2567.1999.00864.x
Bi Z, Reis CS (1995) Inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus infection by nitric oxide. Journal of Virology 69, 2208–2213.
Camkerten Ilker, Sahin T., Borazan G., Gokcen A., Erel O., Das A. (2009): Evaluation of blood oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange. Veterinary Parasitology, 161, 106-109 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.12.019
Chaudhuri S., Varshney J.P., Patra R.C. (2008): Erythrocytic antioxidant defense, lipid peroxides level and blood iron, zinc and copper concentrations in dogs naturally infected with Babesia gibsoni. Research in Veterinary Science, 85, 120-124 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.09.001
Degroote MA, Fang FC (1999): Antimicrobial properties of nitric oxide. In: Fang FC (ed.): Nitric Oxide and Infection. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York. 231–261.
Erel O (2004a): A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation. Clinical Biochemistry 37, 277–285.
Erel O (2004b): A novel automated method to measure total antioxidant response against potent free radical reactions. Clinical Biochemistry 37, 112–119.
Erel Ozcan (2005): A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status. Clinical Biochemistry, 38, 1103-1111 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2005.08.008
Ghiselli Andrea, Serafini Mauro, Natella Fausta, Scaccini Cristina (2000): Total antioxidant capacity as a tool to assess redox status: critical view and experimental data. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 29, 1106-1114 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00394-4
Gokce H.I., Woldehiwet Z. (2002): Production of Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates by Ovine Peripheral Blood Leucocytes Stimulated by Ehrlichia (Cytoecetes) phagocytophila. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 126, 202-211 https://doi.org/10.1053/jcpa.2001.0545
Grotto Denise, Maria Lucas Santa, Valentini Juliana, Paniz Clóvis, Schmitt Gabriela, Garcia Solange Cristina, Pomblum Valdeci Juarez, Rocha João Batista T., Farina Marcelo (2009): Importance of the lipid peroxidation biomarkers and methodological aspects FOR malondialdehyde quantification. Química Nova, 32, 169-174 https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422009000100032
Gutteridge John M.C., Halliwell B. (1993): Invited Review Free Radicals in Disease Processes: A Compilation of Cause and Consequence. Free Radical Research, 19, 141-158 https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769309111598
Gutteridge John M.C., Halliwell Barry (1990): The measurement and mechanism of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 15, 129-135 https://doi.org/10.1016/0968-0004(90)90206-Q
Guzel M, Askar TK, Kaya G, Atakisi E, Avci GE (2008): Serum sialic acids, total antioxidant capacity, and adenosine deaminase activity in cattle theileriosis and anaplasmosis. The Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 52, 227–230.
Halliwell B (1994): Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: curiosity, cause, or consequence?. The Lancet, 344, 721-724 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(94)92211-X
Halliwell Barry (1999): Antioxidant defence mechanisms: From the beginning to the end (of the beginning). Free Radical Research, 31, 261-272 https://doi.org/10.1080/10715769900300841
Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1999): Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, New York. 936 pp.
Heidarpour M., Soltani S., Mohri M., Khoshnegah J. (2012): Canine visceral leishmaniasis: relationships between oxidative stress, liver and kidney variables, trace elements, and clinical status. Parasitology Research, 111, 1491-1496 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-2985-8
Jareño Enrique J., Bosch-Morell Francisco, Fernández-Delgado Rafael, Donat Joaquín, Romero Francisco J. (1998): Serum malondialdehyde in HIV-seropositive children negatively correlates with CD4+ lymphocytes count. BioFactors, 8, 129-132 https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.5520080121
Kandemir FM, Issi M, Benzer F, Gul Y, Basbug O, Ozdemir N (2011): Plasma nitric oxide concentrations and erythrocyte arginase activities in lambs with contagious ecthyma. Revue Medecine Veterinaire 162, 275–278.
Kankofer M., Lipko J., Zdunczyk S. (2005): Total antioxidant capacity of bovine spontaneously released and retained placenta. Pathophysiology, 11, 215-219 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2005.01.001
Karadeniz A, Hanedan B, Cemek M, Borku MK (2008): Relationship between canine distemper and oxidative stress in dogs. Revue Medecine Veterinaire 159, 462–467.
Kizil O, Yuce A (2009): Oxidative stress in dogs with coccidiosis. Revue Medecine Veterinaire 160, 495–499.
Kohen Ron, Nyska Abraham (2002): Oxidation of Biological Systems: Oxidative Stress Phenomena, Antioxidants, Redox Reactions, and Methods for Their Quantification. Toxicologic Pathology, 30, 620-650 https://doi.org/10.1080/01926230290166724
Kosecik Mustafa, Erel Ozcan, Sevinc Eylem, Selek Sahabettin (2005): Increased oxidative stress in children exposed to passive smoking. International Journal of Cardiology, 100, 61-64 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2004.05.069
KREIL THOMAS R., EIBL MARTHA M. (1996): Nitric Oxide and Viral Infection: No Antiviral Activity against a Flavivirusin Vitro,and Evidence for Contribution to Pathogenesis in Experimental Infectionin Vivo. Virology, 219, 304-306 https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.1996.0252
MacNee William (2000): Oxidants/Antioxidants and COPD<xref rid="AFF1"><sup>*</sup></xref>. CHEST Journal, 117, 303S- https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.117.5_suppl_1.303S-a
Marletta Michael A. (1989): Nitric oxide: biosynthesis and biological significance. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 14, 488-492 https://doi.org/10.1016/0968-0004(89)90181-3
Miller J.K., Brzezinska-Slebodzinska E., Madsen F.C. (1993): Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, and Animal Function. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 2812-2823 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77620-1
Moore Kevin, Roberts L. Jackson (1998): Measurement of Lipid Peroxidation. Free Radical Research, 28, 659-671 https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769809065821
MURASE Toshiyuki, UEDA Takeo, YAMATO Osamu, TAJIMA Motoshi, MAEDE Yoshimitsu (1996): Oxidative Damage and Enhanced Erythrophagocytosis in Canine Erythrocytes Infected with Babesia gibsoni.. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 58, 259-261 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.58.259
Pedersen NC (1987): Virologic and immunologic aspects of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 218, 29–550.
Pedersen NC (1989): Animal virus infections that defy vaccination: equine infectious anemia, caprine arthritis-encephalitis, maedi-visna, and feline infectious peritonitis. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 33, 413–428.
Pedersen Niels C. (2009): A review of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection: 1963–2008. Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery, 11, 225-258 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2008.09.008
Placer Zdenek A., Cushman Linda L., Johnson B.Connor (1966): Estimation of product of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde) in biochemical systems. Analytical Biochemistry, 16, 359-364 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(66)90167-9
Castillo Rodríguez Cristina, Wittwer Menge Fernando, Cerón José Joaquin (2011): Oxidative Stress in Veterinary Medicine. Veterinary Medicine International, 2011, 1-1 https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/812086
Rohrbach Barton W., Legendre Alfred M., Baldwin Charles A., Lein Donald H., Reed Willie M., Wilson Ronald B. (2001): Epidemiology of feline infectious peritonitis among cats examined at veterinary medical teaching hospitals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 218, 1111-1115 https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2001.218.1111
Semba R. D., Tang A. M. (1999): Micronutrients and the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. British Journal of Nutrition, 81, 181-189 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114599000379
Sies H (1991): Oxidative stress: introduction. In: Sies H (ed.): Oxidative Stress: Oxidants and Antioxidants. Academic Press, Padova. 15–21.
Somogyi Anikó, Rosta Klára, Pusztai Péter, Tulassay Zsolt, Nagy Géza (2007): Antioxidant measurements. Physiological Measurement, 28, R41-R55 https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/28/4/R01
Van Der Vielt A, Eiserich JP, Cross CE (2000): Nitric oxide: a proinflammatory mediator in lung disease? Respiratory Research 1, 67–72.
Vespa GN, Cunha FQ, Silva JD (1994): Nitric oxide is involved in control of Trypanosoma cruzi-induced parasitemia and directly kills the parasite in vitro. Infection and Immunity 2, 5177–5182.
Webb C, Lehmanb T, McCorda K, Averyb P, Dowa S (2008a): Oxidative stress during acute FIV infection in cats. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 122, 16–24.
Webb CB, Lehman TL, McCord KW (2008b): Effects of an oral superoxide dismutase enzyme supplementation on indices of oxidative stress, proviral load, and CD4:CD8 ratios in asymptomatic FIV-infected cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 10, 423–430.
Yanik Medaim, Erel Ozcan, Kati Mahmut (2004): The relationship between potency of oxidative stress and severity of depression. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 16, 200-203 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0924-2708.2004.00090.x
Yu S., Paetau-Robinson I. (2006): Dietary Supplements of Vitamins E and C and β-Carotene Reduce Oxidative Stress in Cats with Renal Insufficiency. Veterinary Research Communications, 30, 403-413 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-006-3269-5
Zelnickova Petra, Matiasovic Jan, Pavlova Barbora, Kudlackova Hana, Kovaru Frantisek, Faldyna Martin (2008): Quantitative nitric oxide production by rat, bovine and porcine macrophages. Nitric Oxide, 19, 36-41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2008.04.001