Significance of clinical variables and selected biochemical markers in predicting the outcome of bovine anaplasmosis M., Salama M., El-Sebaei M., Risha E., Abdelhamid F., El-Diasty M., El-Fadle E. (2015): Significance of clinical variables and selected biochemical markers in predicting the outcome of bovine anaplasmosis. Veterinarni Medicina, 60: 301-308.
download PDF
The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of selected inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in predicting the clinical outcome of cattle infected with Anaplasma (A). marginale. The study population consisted of 39 cattle naturally infected with A. marginale. The presumptive diagnosis of this infection was initially achieved on the basis of case history, microscopy and clinical examination findings, and confirmed using A. marginale-specific PCR assays. The diseased cattle were categorised according to the clinical outcome into survivors (n = 26) and non-survivors (n = 13). For comparison, ten clinically healthy cattle were randomly selected and served as controls. Blood was drawn from all examined animals to measure the respective levels of selected cytokines, acute phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant enzyme levels. We found that the clinical examination alone was not conclusive and should be used in conjunction with other diagnostic methods. Nonetheless, the non-surviving animals showed anorexia, frequent coughing, dyspnoea, bloody faeces, recumbency, pale or icteric mucous membranes, and haemoglobinuria. Biochemically, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, malondialdehye, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly higher in diseased cattle compared with controls, and were higher in non-survivors than survivors (P < 0.05). In contrast, reduced glutathione (G-SH) was significantly lower in non-surviving cattle than survivors and controls. Interestingly, a significant correlation was found between parasitaemia of the diseased cattle and most of the measured biochemical variables, with IL-1β and G-SH showing the highest correlation. Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. marginale infection is associated with marked inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, which are higher in non-surviving cattle compared with survivors. The overall degree of cytokine and anti-oxidative disruption may have an important prognostic value for the disease outcome.
Abdel Hamid O, Radwan M, Ali A (2014): Biochemical changes associated with Anaplasma infection in cattle. Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry 9, 19–23.
Asri Rezaei S., Dalir-Naghadeh B. (2006): Evaluation of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata. Veterinary Parasitology, 142, 179-186
Carelli G., Decaro N., Lorusso A., Elia G., Lorusso E., Mari V., Ceci L., Buonavoglia C. (2007): Detection and quantification of Anaplasma marginale DNA in blood samples of cattle by real-time PCR. Veterinary Microbiology, 124, 107-114
Silva Aline Preve da, Meotti Flávia Carla, Santos Adair R.S., Farina Marcelo (2006): Lactational exposure to malathion inhibits brain acetylcholinesterase in mice. NeuroToxicology, 27, 1101-1105
De Ujjwal Kumar, Dey Sahadeb, Banerjee Partha Sarathi, Sahoo Monalisa (2012): Correlations among Anaplasma marginale parasitemia and markers of oxidative stress in crossbred calves. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44, 385-388
Dumler J. S., Barbet A. F., Bekker C., Dasch G. A., Palmer G. H., Ray S. C., Rikihisa Y., Rurangirwa F. R. (): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY, 51, 2145-2165
Eckersall P (2000): Recent advances and future prospects for the use of acute phase proteins as markers of disease in animals. Revue de Medecine Veterinaire 151, 577–584.
Edith MS, Jonathan H, Sezer MT, Chertow GM (2004): Plasma cytokine levels predict mortality in patients with acute renal failure. Official Journal of the International Society of Nephrology 65, 1357–1365.
El-Ashker M, Salama M, El Boshy M (2013): Traumatic reticuloperitonitis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Clinical findings and the associated inflammatory response. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Article ID 808656, 6.
El-Ashker M, Salama M, Rizk A, El-Boshy M. (2014): The use of inflammatory markers as a prognostic aid for traumatic reticuloperitonitis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Veterinarni Medicina 59, 239–246.
El-Ashker Maged, Hotzel Helmut, Gwida Mayada, El-Beskawy Mohamed, Silaghi Cornelia, Tomaso Herbert (2015): Molecular biological identification of Babesia, Theileria, and Anaplasma species in cattle in Egypt using PCR assays, gene sequence analysis and a novel DNA microarray. Veterinary Parasitology, 207, 329-334
El-Sebaei Mahmoud, El-Ashker Maged, El-Boshy Mohamed (2014): The role of acute phase cytokines in the recovery and disease progress of Theileria annulata-infected cattle. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 23, 1497-1502
Eriks IS, Stiller D, Palmer GH (1993): Impact of persistent Anaplasma marginale rickettsemia on tick infection and transmission. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 31, 2091–2096.
Feldman, BV, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (2000): Schalms Veterinary Hematology. 5th ed. Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia. 1152–1159.
Freeman BA, Crapo JD (1982): Biology of disease: free radicals and tissue injury. Laboratory Investigation 47, 412–426.
Gubbels JM, de Vos AP, van der Weide M, Viseras J, Schouls LM, de Vries E, Jongejan F (1999): Simultaneous detection of bovine Theileria and Babesia species by reverse line blot hybridization. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 1782–1789.
Kocan Katherine M., de la Fuente José, Blouin Edmour F., Coetzee Johann F., Ewing S.A. (2010): The natural history of Anaplasma marginale. Veterinary Parasitology, 167, 95-107
Koj Aleksander (1996): Initiation of acute phase response and synthesis of cytokines. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1317, 84-94
Okusawa S, Gelfand J A, Ikejima T, Connolly R J, Dinarello C A (1988): Interleukin 1 induces a shock-like state in rabbits. Synergism with tumor necrosis factor and the effect of cyclooxygenase inhibition.. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 81, 1162-1172
Latimer KS, Mahaffey EA, Prasse KW (2003): Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology. 4th ed. Iowa State Press, Iowa. 162–168.
Nazifi S., Razavi S.M., Kaviani F., Rakhshandehroo E. (2012): Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale. Veterinary Microbiology, 155, 267-271
OIE (2012): Bovine Anaplasmosis. OIE Terrestrial Manual Chapter 2.4.1. 589–600
Orro Toomas, Pohjanvirta Tarja, Rikula Ulla, Huovilainen Anita, Alasuutari Sakari, Sihvonen Liisa, Pelkonen Sinikka, Soveri Timo (2011): Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 34, 23-29
Rauchhaus M., Doehner W., Francis D. P., Davos C., Kemp M., Liebenthal C., Niebauer J., Hooper J., Volk H.-D., Coats A. J. S., Anker S. D. (): Plasma Cytokine Parameters and Mortality in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure. Circulation, 102, 3060-3067
Salm FF, Younis EE, Hegazy NM, El-Sawalhy AA (2011): Epidemiological studies on bovine Anaplasmosis. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 59. 179–189.
Younis E.E, Hegazy N.A.M, El-Deeb W, El-khatib R.M (2010): Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in dakahlia and demiatta governorates in Egypt. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 57, -
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences