Equine ocular squamous cell carcinoma: a case report

https://doi.org/10.17221/8386-VETMEDCitation:Drazek M., Lew M., Lew S., Szarek J., Balicki I., Della Salda L. (2015): Equine ocular squamous cell carcinoma: a case report. Veterinarni Medicina, 60: 379-386.
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An eight-year-old gelding, Wielkopolski Horse was presented with a pink tumour, which filled the entire palpebral fissure of the left eye. Ultrasonography revealed it to be well-demarcated from the cornea mass, which covered its entire surface. Due to the extensive size of the lesion and the lack of owner’s consent to post-operative treatment, it was decided to perform enucleation. A histopathological examination revealed corneal squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). The primary cause of the tumour has not been established. Immunohistochemistry was negative for p16 immunoreactivity which is typical for the E7 oncoprotein in PV infection, and is suspected of involvement in the aetiopathogenesis of ocular squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
References:
Albanese Valeria, Hanson R. Reid, McMaster Mattie, Underwood Kirk, Caldwell Fred (2014): Radical Eye Exenteration and Second Intention Healing in Horses: A Case Series. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 34, 1342-1347  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2014.09.001
 
Albaric O, Bret L, Amardeihl M, Delverdier M (2001): Immunohistochemical expression of p53 in animal tumors: a methodological study using four anti-human p53 antibodies. Histology and Histopathology 16, 113–121.
 
Auw-Haedrich Claudia, Martin Gottfried, Spelsberg Helga, Sundmacher Rainer, Freudenberg Nikolaus, Maier Philip, Reinhard Thomas (2008): Expression of p16 in Conjunctival Intraepithelial Neoplasia Does Not Correlate with HPV-Infection. The Open Ophthalmology Journal, 2, 48-56  https://doi.org/10.2174/1874364100802010048
 
Beard W. L., Wilkie D. A. (2002): Partial orbital rim resection, mesh skin expansion, and second intention healing combined with enucleation or exenteration for extensive periocular tumors in horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 5, 23-28  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1463-5224.2002.00205.x
 
Bosch Gerco, Klein Wim R. (2005): Superficial keratectomy and cryosurgery as therapy for limbal neoplasms in 13 horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 8, 241-246  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2005.00395.x
 
Brash D. E., Rudolph J. A., Simon J. A., Lin A., McKenna G. J., Baden H. P., Halperin A. J., Ponten J. (1991): A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 88, 10124-10128  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.22.10124
 
Carvalho T., Vala H., Pinto C., Pinho M., Peleteiro M. C. (2005): Immunohistochemical Studies of Epithelial Cell Proliferation and p53 Mutation in Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Veterinary Pathology, 42, 66-73  https://doi.org/10.1354/vp.42-1-66
 
Chahory Sabine, Clerc Bernard, Devauchelle Patrick, Tnibar Aziz (2002): Treatment of a recurrent ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse with Iridium-192 implantation. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 22, 503-506  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(02)70179-2
 
Chauhan S., Sen S., Sharma A., Dar L., Kashyap S., Kumar P., Bajaj M. S., Tandon R. (): Human papillomavirus: a predictor of better survival in ocular surface squamous neoplasia patients. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 96, 1517-1521  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2012-301907
 
Clode Alison B., Miller Chelsey, McMullen Richard J., Gilger Brian C. (2012): A retrospective comparison of surgical removal and subsequent CO2 laser ablation versus topical administration of mitomycin C as therapy for equine corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 15, 254-262  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2011.00982.x
 
Dubielzig RR (2002): 15 Tumors of the eye. In: Meuten DJ (ed.):Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa. 739–754.
 
Dugan SJ, Curtis CR, Roberts SM, Severin GA (1991a): Epidemiologic study of ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198, 251–256.
 
Dugan SJ, Roberts SM, Curtis CR, Severin GA (1991b): Prognostic factors and survival of horses with ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma: 147 cases (1978–1988). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198, 298–303.
 
English RV, Nasisse MP, Davidson MG (1990): Carbon dioxide laser ablation for treatment of limbal squamous cell carcinoma in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196, 439–442.
 
Eversole TG, Lavach JD (1978): Primary ocular squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis in a horse. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 73, 287–288.
 
Gelatt KN (1975): Corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma in the horse. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 50, 53.
 
Gelatt KN, Myers VS Jr, Perman V, Jessen C (1974): Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in the horse. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 165, 617–620.
 
Gilger BC (2013): 28 Equine Ophthalmology. In: Gelatt KN, Gilger BC, Kern TJ (eds.): Veterinary Ophthalmology, 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa. 1560–1610.
 
Gilger BC, Davidson MG (2002): How to prepare for ocular surgery in the standing horse. Proceedings of American Association of Equine Practitioners 48, 266–271.
 
Giuliano Elizabeth A., MacDonald Ian, McCaw Dudley L., Dougherty Thomas J., Klauss Gia, Ota Juri, Pearce Jacqueline W., Johnson Philip J. (2008): Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of periocular squamous cell carcinoma in horses: a pilot study. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 11, 27-34  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2008.00643.x
 
Gonzalez-Alonso-Alegre Elisa M., Rodriguez-Alvaro Alfonso, Martinez-Nevado Eva, Martinez-de-Merlo Elena M., Sanchez-Maldonado Belen (2013): Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in a reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus ). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16, 113-116  https://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12002
 
Hacker DV, Moore PF, Buyukmihci NC (1986): Ocular angiosarcoma in four horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189, 200–203.
 
Hall PA, McKee PH, Menage HD, Dover R, Lane DP (1993): High levels of p53 protein in UV-irradiated normal human skin. Oncogene 8, 203–207.
 
Kafarnik Christiane, Rawlings Melanie, Dubielzig Richard R. (2009): Corneal stromal invasive squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective morphological description in 10 horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 12, 6-12  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2009.00666.x
 
Kamb Alexander (1994): Sun protection factor p53. Nature, 372, 730-731  https://doi.org/10.1038/372730a0
 
Kaps Simone, Richter Marianne, Philipp Martin, Bart Madeleine, Eule Corinna, Spiess Bernhard M. (2005): Primary invasive ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 8, 193-197  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2005.00358.x
 
Kim DY, Cho HS, Schommer S, Giuliano EA, Johnson PJ (2009): A novel equine papillomavirus as a possible etiology of equine ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Veterinary Pathology 46, 1074.
 
KING TRACEY C., PRIEHS D. R., GUM G. G., MILLER T. R. (1991): Therapeutic management of ocular squamous cell carcinoma in the horse: 43 cases (1979-1989). Equine Veterinary Journal, 23, 449-452  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1991.tb03759.x
 
Koch SA, Cowles RR Jr (1971): Surgical removal of a squamous cell carcinoma of the equine eye. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 66, 327–329.
 
Konig F, Krekeler G, Honig JF, Cordon-Cardo C, Fischer G, Korabiowska M (2007): Relation between human papillomavirus positivity and p16 expression in head and neck carcinomas–a tissue microarray study. Anticancer Research 27, 283–288.
 
Lane D. P. (1992): p53, guardian of the genome. Nature, 358, 15-16  https://doi.org/10.1038/358015a0
 
Lassaline Mary, Cranford Taryn L., Latimer Claire A., Bellone Rebecca R. (2014): Limbal squamous cell carcinoma in Haflinger horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, , n/a-n/a  https://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12229
 
Lavach JD (1990): Ocular neoplasia. In: Lavach JD (ed.): Large Animal Ophthalmology, 1st ed. Mosby, London. 270–288.
 
Lavach JD, Severin GA (1977): Neoplasia of the equine eye, adnexa, and orbit: a review of 68 cases. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 170, 202–203.
 
Mair T. S., Sherlock C. E., Pearson G. R. (2015): Delayed metastasis of ocular squamous cell carcinoma following treatment in five horses. Equine Veterinary Education, 27, e9-e14  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3292.2012.00435.x
 
Malalana F., Knottenbelt D., McKane S. (2010): Mitomycin C, with or without surgery, for the treatment of ocular squamous cell carcinoma in horses. Veterinary Record, 167, 373-376  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.c3815
 
McCalla TL, Moore CP, Collier LL (1992): Immunotherapy of periocular squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis in a pony. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200, 1678–1681.
 
Michau Tammy M., Davidson Michael G., Gilger Brian C. (2012): Carbon dioxide laser photoablation adjunctive therapy following superficial lamellar keratectomy and bulbar conjunctivectomy for the treatment of corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma in horses: a review of 24 cases. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 15, 245-253  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2011.00977.x
 
Monlux AW, Anderson WA, Davis CL (1957): The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the eye (‘cancer eye’) in the cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research 18, 5–34.
 
Mosunic Cory B., Moore Phillip A., Carmicheal K. Paige, Chandler Matthew J., Vidyashankar Anand, Zhao Ying, Roberts Royce E., Dietrich Ursula M. (2004): Effects of treatment with and without adjuvant radiation therapy on recurrence of ocular and adnexal squamous cell carcinoma in horses: 157 cases (1985-2002). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225, 1733-1738  https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2004.225.1733
 
Munday JS, French AF, Peters-Kennedy J, Orbell GM, Gwynne K (2011a): Increased p16CDKN2A protein within feline cutaneous viral plaques, bowenoid in situ carcinomas, and a subset of invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Veterinary Pathology 48, 460–465.
 
Munday JS, Knight CG, French AF (2011b): Evaluation of feline oral squamous cell carcinomas for p16CDKN2A protein immunoreactivity and the presence of papillomaviral DNA. Research in Veterinary Science 90, 280–283.
 
Munday J. S., Fairley R. A., Mills H., Kiupel M., Vaatstra B. L. (): Oral Papillomas Associated With Felis catus Papillomavirus Type 1 in 2 Domestic Cats. Veterinary Pathology, , -  https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985814565133
 
Nasir Lubna, Brandt Sabine (2013): Papillomavirus associated diseases of the horse. Veterinary Microbiology, 167, 159-167  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.08.003
 
Payne RJ, Lean MS, Greet TR (2009): Third eyelid resection as a treatment for suspected squamous cell carcinoma in 24 horses. Veterinary Record 165, 740–743.
 
Pierce KE Jr, Townsend WM (2012): 55 Surgery of the Globe and Orbit. In: Auer JA, Stick JA (eds.): Equine Surgery. 4th ed. Saunders. 728–743.
 
Plummer C. E., Smith S., Andrew S. E., Lassaline M. E., Gelatt K. N., Brooks D. E., Kallberg M. E., Ollivier F. J. (2007): Combined keratectomy, strontium-90 irradiation and permanent bulbar conjunctival grafts for corneolimbal squamous cell carcinomas in horses (1990?2002): 38 horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 10, 37-42  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00489.x
 
Pucket J. D., Gilmour M. A. (2014): Intralesional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the treatment of eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in 5 horses. Equine Veterinary Education, 26, 331-335  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3292.2011.00259.x
 
RAMADAN R. O. (1975): Primary Ocular Melanoma in a Young Horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 7, 49-50  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1975.tb03229.x
 
REBHUN W. C. (1990): Treatment of Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinomas Involving the Equine Cornea. Veterinary Surgery, 19, 297-302  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.1990.tb01191.x
 
Schnoke Allison T., Brooks Dennis E., Wilkie David A., Dwyer Ann E., Matthews Andrew G., Gilger Brian C., Hendrix Diane V. H., Pickett Phillip, Grauwels Magda, Monroe Christine, Plummer Caryn E. (2013): Extraocular lymphoma in the horse. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16, 35-42  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2012.01016.x
 
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Albanese Valeria, Hanson R. Reid, McMaster Mattie, Underwood Kirk, Caldwell Fred (2014): Radical Eye Exenteration and Second Intention Healing in Horses: A Case Series. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 34, 1342-1347  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2014.09.001
 
Albaric O, Bret L, Amardeihl M, Delverdier M (2001): Immunohistochemical expression of p53 in animal tumors: a methodological study using four anti-human p53 antibodies. Histology and Histopathology 16, 113–121.
 
Auw-Haedrich Claudia, Martin Gottfried, Spelsberg Helga, Sundmacher Rainer, Freudenberg Nikolaus, Maier Philip, Reinhard Thomas (2008): Expression of p16 in Conjunctival Intraepithelial Neoplasia Does Not Correlate with HPV-Infection. The Open Ophthalmology Journal, 2, 48-56  https://doi.org/10.2174/1874364100802010048
 
Beard W. L., Wilkie D. A. (2002): Partial orbital rim resection, mesh skin expansion, and second intention healing combined with enucleation or exenteration for extensive periocular tumors in horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 5, 23-28  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1463-5224.2002.00205.x
 
Bosch Gerco, Klein Wim R. (2005): Superficial keratectomy and cryosurgery as therapy for limbal neoplasms in 13 horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 8, 241-246  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2005.00395.x
 
Brash D. E., Rudolph J. A., Simon J. A., Lin A., McKenna G. J., Baden H. P., Halperin A. J., Ponten J. (1991): A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 88, 10124-10128  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.22.10124
 
Carvalho T., Vala H., Pinto C., Pinho M., Peleteiro M. C. (2005): Immunohistochemical Studies of Epithelial Cell Proliferation and p53 Mutation in Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Veterinary Pathology, 42, 66-73  https://doi.org/10.1354/vp.42-1-66
 
Chahory Sabine, Clerc Bernard, Devauchelle Patrick, Tnibar Aziz (2002): Treatment of a recurrent ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse with Iridium-192 implantation. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 22, 503-506  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(02)70179-2
 
Chauhan S., Sen S., Sharma A., Dar L., Kashyap S., Kumar P., Bajaj M. S., Tandon R. (): Human papillomavirus: a predictor of better survival in ocular surface squamous neoplasia patients. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 96, 1517-1521  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2012-301907
 
Clode Alison B., Miller Chelsey, McMullen Richard J., Gilger Brian C. (2012): A retrospective comparison of surgical removal and subsequent CO2 laser ablation versus topical administration of mitomycin C as therapy for equine corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 15, 254-262  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2011.00982.x
 
Dubielzig RR (2002): 15 Tumors of the eye. In: Meuten DJ (ed.):Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa. 739–754.
 
Dugan SJ, Curtis CR, Roberts SM, Severin GA (1991a): Epidemiologic study of ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198, 251–256.
 
Dugan SJ, Roberts SM, Curtis CR, Severin GA (1991b): Prognostic factors and survival of horses with ocular/adnexal squamous cell carcinoma: 147 cases (1978–1988). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198, 298–303.
 
English RV, Nasisse MP, Davidson MG (1990): Carbon dioxide laser ablation for treatment of limbal squamous cell carcinoma in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196, 439–442.
 
Eversole TG, Lavach JD (1978): Primary ocular squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis in a horse. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 73, 287–288.
 
Gelatt KN (1975): Corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma in the horse. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 50, 53.
 
Gelatt KN, Myers VS Jr, Perman V, Jessen C (1974): Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in the horse. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 165, 617–620.
 
Gilger BC (2013): 28 Equine Ophthalmology. In: Gelatt KN, Gilger BC, Kern TJ (eds.): Veterinary Ophthalmology, 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa. 1560–1610.
 
Gilger BC, Davidson MG (2002): How to prepare for ocular surgery in the standing horse. Proceedings of American Association of Equine Practitioners 48, 266–271.
 
Giuliano Elizabeth A., MacDonald Ian, McCaw Dudley L., Dougherty Thomas J., Klauss Gia, Ota Juri, Pearce Jacqueline W., Johnson Philip J. (2008): Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of periocular squamous cell carcinoma in horses: a pilot study. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 11, 27-34  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2008.00643.x
 
Gonzalez-Alonso-Alegre Elisa M., Rodriguez-Alvaro Alfonso, Martinez-Nevado Eva, Martinez-de-Merlo Elena M., Sanchez-Maldonado Belen (2013): Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in a reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus ). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16, 113-116  https://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12002
 
Hacker DV, Moore PF, Buyukmihci NC (1986): Ocular angiosarcoma in four horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189, 200–203.
 
Hall PA, McKee PH, Menage HD, Dover R, Lane DP (1993): High levels of p53 protein in UV-irradiated normal human skin. Oncogene 8, 203–207.
 
Kafarnik Christiane, Rawlings Melanie, Dubielzig Richard R. (2009): Corneal stromal invasive squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective morphological description in 10 horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 12, 6-12  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2009.00666.x
 
Kamb Alexander (1994): Sun protection factor p53. Nature, 372, 730-731  https://doi.org/10.1038/372730a0
 
Kaps Simone, Richter Marianne, Philipp Martin, Bart Madeleine, Eule Corinna, Spiess Bernhard M. (2005): Primary invasive ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 8, 193-197  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2005.00358.x
 
Kim DY, Cho HS, Schommer S, Giuliano EA, Johnson PJ (2009): A novel equine papillomavirus as a possible etiology of equine ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Veterinary Pathology 46, 1074.
 
KING TRACEY C., PRIEHS D. R., GUM G. G., MILLER T. R. (1991): Therapeutic management of ocular squamous cell carcinoma in the horse: 43 cases (1979-1989). Equine Veterinary Journal, 23, 449-452  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1991.tb03759.x
 
Koch SA, Cowles RR Jr (1971): Surgical removal of a squamous cell carcinoma of the equine eye. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 66, 327–329.
 
Konig F, Krekeler G, Honig JF, Cordon-Cardo C, Fischer G, Korabiowska M (2007): Relation between human papillomavirus positivity and p16 expression in head and neck carcinomas–a tissue microarray study. Anticancer Research 27, 283–288.
 
Lane D. P. (1992): p53, guardian of the genome. Nature, 358, 15-16  https://doi.org/10.1038/358015a0
 
Lassaline Mary, Cranford Taryn L., Latimer Claire A., Bellone Rebecca R. (2014): Limbal squamous cell carcinoma in Haflinger horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, , n/a-n/a  https://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12229
 
Lavach JD (1990): Ocular neoplasia. In: Lavach JD (ed.): Large Animal Ophthalmology, 1st ed. Mosby, London. 270–288.
 
Lavach JD, Severin GA (1977): Neoplasia of the equine eye, adnexa, and orbit: a review of 68 cases. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 170, 202–203.
 
Mair T. S., Sherlock C. E., Pearson G. R. (2015): Delayed metastasis of ocular squamous cell carcinoma following treatment in five horses. Equine Veterinary Education, 27, e9-e14  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3292.2012.00435.x
 
Malalana F., Knottenbelt D., McKane S. (2010): Mitomycin C, with or without surgery, for the treatment of ocular squamous cell carcinoma in horses. Veterinary Record, 167, 373-376  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.c3815
 
McCalla TL, Moore CP, Collier LL (1992): Immunotherapy of periocular squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis in a pony. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200, 1678–1681.
 
Michau Tammy M., Davidson Michael G., Gilger Brian C. (2012): Carbon dioxide laser photoablation adjunctive therapy following superficial lamellar keratectomy and bulbar conjunctivectomy for the treatment of corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma in horses: a review of 24 cases. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 15, 245-253  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2011.00977.x
 
Monlux AW, Anderson WA, Davis CL (1957): The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the eye (‘cancer eye’) in the cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research 18, 5–34.
 
Mosunic Cory B., Moore Phillip A., Carmicheal K. Paige, Chandler Matthew J., Vidyashankar Anand, Zhao Ying, Roberts Royce E., Dietrich Ursula M. (2004): Effects of treatment with and without adjuvant radiation therapy on recurrence of ocular and adnexal squamous cell carcinoma in horses: 157 cases (1985-2002). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225, 1733-1738  https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2004.225.1733
 
Munday JS, French AF, Peters-Kennedy J, Orbell GM, Gwynne K (2011a): Increased p16CDKN2A protein within feline cutaneous viral plaques, bowenoid in situ carcinomas, and a subset of invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Veterinary Pathology 48, 460–465.
 
Munday JS, Knight CG, French AF (2011b): Evaluation of feline oral squamous cell carcinomas for p16CDKN2A protein immunoreactivity and the presence of papillomaviral DNA. Research in Veterinary Science 90, 280–283.
 
Munday J. S., Fairley R. A., Mills H., Kiupel M., Vaatstra B. L. (): Oral Papillomas Associated With Felis catus Papillomavirus Type 1 in 2 Domestic Cats. Veterinary Pathology, , -  https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985814565133
 
Nasir Lubna, Brandt Sabine (2013): Papillomavirus associated diseases of the horse. Veterinary Microbiology, 167, 159-167  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.08.003
 
Payne RJ, Lean MS, Greet TR (2009): Third eyelid resection as a treatment for suspected squamous cell carcinoma in 24 horses. Veterinary Record 165, 740–743.
 
Pierce KE Jr, Townsend WM (2012): 55 Surgery of the Globe and Orbit. In: Auer JA, Stick JA (eds.): Equine Surgery. 4th ed. Saunders. 728–743.
 
Plummer C. E., Smith S., Andrew S. E., Lassaline M. E., Gelatt K. N., Brooks D. E., Kallberg M. E., Ollivier F. J. (2007): Combined keratectomy, strontium-90 irradiation and permanent bulbar conjunctival grafts for corneolimbal squamous cell carcinomas in horses (1990?2002): 38 horses. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 10, 37-42  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00489.x
 
Pucket J. D., Gilmour M. A. (2014): Intralesional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the treatment of eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in 5 horses. Equine Veterinary Education, 26, 331-335  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3292.2011.00259.x
 
RAMADAN R. O. (1975): Primary Ocular Melanoma in a Young Horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 7, 49-50  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1975.tb03229.x
 
REBHUN W. C. (1990): Treatment of Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinomas Involving the Equine Cornea. Veterinary Surgery, 19, 297-302  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.1990.tb01191.x
 
Schnoke Allison T., Brooks Dennis E., Wilkie David A., Dwyer Ann E., Matthews Andrew G., Gilger Brian C., Hendrix Diane V. H., Pickett Phillip, Grauwels Magda, Monroe Christine, Plummer Caryn E. (2013): Extraocular lymphoma in the horse. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16, 35-42  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2012.01016.x
 
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Scurrell Emma J., Lewin Gary, Solomons Melanie, Rozmanec Michael, Belford Chris J. (2013): Corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma with intraocular invasion in two cats. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16, 151-154  https://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12036
 
Sironi Giuseppe, Riccaboni Pietro, Mertel Luca, Cammarata Giorgio, Brooks Dennis E. (1999): p53 protein expression in conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas of domestic animals. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 2, 227-231  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1463-5224.1999.00086.x
 
Takiyama Naoaki, Terasaki Eri, Uechi Masami (2010): Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in two dogs. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 13, 266-269  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2010.00792.x
 
Teifke J.P., Löhr C.V. (1996): Immunohistochemical detection of P53 overexpression in paraffin wax-embedded squamous cell carcinomas of cattle, horses, cats and dogs. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 114, 205-210  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9975(96)80010-7
 
THÉON A. P., PASCOE J. R. (1995): Iridium-192 interstitial brachytherapy for equine periocular tumours: treatment results and prognostic factors in 115 horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 27, 117-121  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1995.tb03046.x
 
Theon AP, Pascoe JR, Carlson GP, Krag DN (1993): Intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin in oily emulsion in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202, 261–267.
 
Theon AP, Pascoe JR, Galuppo LD, Fisher PE, Griffey SM, Madigan JE (1999): Comparison of perioperative versus postoperative intratumoral administration of cisplatin for treatment of cutaneous sarcoids and squamous cell carcinomas in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215, 1655–1660.
 
van der Woerdt A, Gilger BC, Wilkie DA (1996): Penetrating keratoplasty for treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cornea in a horse. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 15, 1692–1694.
 
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RAMADAN R. O. (1975): Primary Ocular Melanoma in a Young Horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 7, 49-50  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1975.tb03229.x
 
REBHUN W. C. (1990): Treatment of Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinomas Involving the Equine Cornea. Veterinary Surgery, 19, 297-302  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.1990.tb01191.x
 
Schnoke Allison T., Brooks Dennis E., Wilkie David A., Dwyer Ann E., Matthews Andrew G., Gilger Brian C., Hendrix Diane V. H., Pickett Phillip, Grauwels Magda, Monroe Christine, Plummer Caryn E. (2013): Extraocular lymphoma in the horse. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16, 35-42  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2012.01016.x
 
Schoster JV (1992): Using combined excision and cryotherapy to treat limbal squamous cell carcinoma. Veterinary Medicine 87, 357–365.
 
SCHWINK KAY (1987): Factors influencing morbidity and outcome of equine ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Equine Veterinary Journal, 19, 198-200  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1987.tb01378.x
 
Scurrell Emma J., Lewin Gary, Solomons Melanie, Rozmanec Michael, Belford Chris J. (2013): Corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma with intraocular invasion in two cats. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 16, 151-154  https://doi.org/10.1111/vop.12036
 
Sironi Giuseppe, Riccaboni Pietro, Mertel Luca, Cammarata Giorgio, Brooks Dennis E. (1999): p53 protein expression in conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas of domestic animals. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 2, 227-231  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1463-5224.1999.00086.x
 
Takiyama Naoaki, Terasaki Eri, Uechi Masami (2010): Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in two dogs. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 13, 266-269  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2010.00792.x
 
Teifke J.P., Löhr C.V. (1996): Immunohistochemical detection of P53 overexpression in paraffin wax-embedded squamous cell carcinomas of cattle, horses, cats and dogs. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 114, 205-210  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9975(96)80010-7
 
THÉON A. P., PASCOE J. R. (1995): Iridium-192 interstitial brachytherapy for equine periocular tumours: treatment results and prognostic factors in 115 horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 27, 117-121  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1995.tb03046.x
 
Theon AP, Pascoe JR, Carlson GP, Krag DN (1993): Intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin in oily emulsion in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202, 261–267.
 
Theon AP, Pascoe JR, Galuppo LD, Fisher PE, Griffey SM, Madigan JE (1999): Comparison of perioperative versus postoperative intratumoral administration of cisplatin for treatment of cutaneous sarcoids and squamous cell carcinomas in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215, 1655–1660.
 
van der Woerdt A, Gilger BC, Wilkie DA (1996): Penetrating keratoplasty for treatment of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cornea in a horse. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 15, 1692–1694.
 
WALKER MICHAEL A., GOBLE DALLAS, GEISER DENNIS (1986): TWO-YEAR NON-RECURRENCE RATES FOR EQUINE OCULAR AND PERIORBITAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA FOLLOWING RADIOTHERAPY. Veterinary Radiology, 27, 146-148  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.1986.tb00022.x
 
Wilkie DA, Burt JK (1990): Combined treatment of ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse, using radiofrequency hyperthermia and interstitial 198Au implants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196,1831–1833.
 
Woods Mark, Chow Sharron, Heng Benjamin, Glenn Wendy, Whitaker Noel, Waring Dale, Iwasenko Jenna, Rawlinson William, Coroneo Minas T., Wakefield Denis, Di Girolamo Nick (2013): Detecting Human Papillomavirus in Ocular Surface Diseases. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 54, 8069-  https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-13140
 
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