Risk factors for gastric dilatation and volvulus in central Europe: an internet survey
I. Uhrikova, K. Machackova, L. Rauserova-Lexmaulova, E. Janova, J. Doubekhttps://doi.org/10.17221/8496-VETMEDCitation:Uhrikova I., Machackova K., Rauserova-Lexmaulova L., Janova E., Doubek J. (2015): Risk factors for gastric dilatation and volvulus in central Europe: an internet survey. Veterinarni Medicina, 60: 578-587.
The aim of this internet-based questionnaire was to determine risk factors for the development and survival of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in dogs in central Europe. The questionnaire focused on general information, feeding and elimination behaviour, family history, personality and routine habits, was freely distributed on the internet. Respondents were recruited by e-mail, and announcement of the survey on websites focused on dogs or breeder clubs and flyers in veterinary clinics and at dog shows. Responses from the owners of 785 dogs were analysed. Data underwent descriptive statistical and logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with an increased risk of GDV are intact male, specific breed, pet food and first-degree relative with gastric-dilatation and volvulus. In contrast, low risk was observed in spayed females, dogs eating meals with large particles, dogs with frequent defecation or in dogs kept at home. Non-survivors had a significantly longer time between food consumption and the development of clinical signs than survivors. We conclude that the risk of GDV development is associated with several factors. Some of these can be influenced by the owner or veterinarian.Keywords:gastric dilatation and volvulus syndrome; prognostic factors; dogReferences:
Amstrup Steven C., Nielsen Carol A. (1989): Acute Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus in a Free-living Polar Bear. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 25, 601-604 https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-25.4.601Beck Jennifer J., Staatz Andrew J., Pelsue Davyd H., Kudnig Simon T., MacPhail Catriona M., Seim Howard B., Monnet Eric (2006): Risk factors associated with short-term outcome and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery because of gastric dilatation-volvulus: 166 cases (1992–2003). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229, 1934-1939 https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.229.12.1934Braun L, Lester S, Kuzma AB, Hosie SC (1996): Gastric dilatation-volvulus in the dog with histological evidence of preexisting inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective study of 23 cases. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 32, 287-290 https://doi.org/10.5326/15473317-32-4-287Brockman DJ, Washabau RJ, Drobatz KJ (1995): Canine gastric dilatation/volvulus syndrome in a veterinary critical care unit: 295 cases (1986–1992). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 270, 460–464.Dennler R., Koch D., Hassig M., Howard J., Montavon P.M. (2005): Climatic conditions as a risk factor in canine gastric dilatation-volvulus. The Veterinary Journal, 169, 97-101 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2003.12.013Evans Katy M., Adams Vicki J. (2010): Mortality and morbidity due to gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in pedigree dogs in the UK. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 51, 376-381 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.00949.xFormaggini Luca, Schmidt Karin, De Lorenzi Davide (2008): Gastric dilatation–volvulus associated with diaphragmatic hernia in three cats: clinical presentation, surgical treatment and presumptive aetiology. Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery, 10, 198-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2007.09.010Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Perez CM, Schellenberg DB, Lantz GC (1994): Analysis of risk factors for gastric dilatation and dilatation-volvulus in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 204, 1465–1471.Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Schellenberg DB, Simpson K, Lantz GC (1997): Multiple risk factors for the gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in dogs: a practitioner/owner case-control study. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 33, 197-204 https://doi.org/10.5326/15473317-33-3-197Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Schellenberg DB, Raghavan M, Lee TL (2000a): Incidence of and breed-related risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216, 40–45.Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Schellenberg DB, Raghavan M, Lee T (2000b): Non-dietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in large and giant breed dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217, 1492–1499.Hall JA, Solie TN, Seim HB 3rd, Twedt DC (1993): Gastric myoelectric and motor activity in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. American Journal of Physiology 256, G646–653.Hall JA, Willer LR, Seim HB, Powers BE (1994) Gross and histologic evaluation of hepatogastric ligaments in clinically normal dogs and dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56, 1611–1614.Herbold John R., Moore George E., Gosch Terry L., Bell B. Sue (2002): Relationship between incidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus and biometeorologic events in a population of military working dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 63, 47-52 https://doi.org/10.2460/AJVR.2002.63.47Levine Michael, Moore George E (2009): A time series model of the occurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus in a population of dogs. BMC Veterinary Research, 5, 12- https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-5-12Mitchell Elizabeth B., Hawkins Michelle G., Gaffney Patricia M., MacLeod Alexander G. (2010): Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus in a Guinea Pig ( Cavia porcellus ). Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 46, 174-180 https://doi.org/10.5326/0460174Moore George E., Levine Michael, Anderson Johnna D., Trapp Robert J. (2008): Meteorological influence on the occurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus in military working dogs in Texas. International Journal of Biometeorology, 52, 219-222 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-007-0115-6Pipan Marko, Brown Dorothy Cimino, Battaglia Carmelo L., Otto Cynthia M. (2012): An Internet-based survey of risk factors for surgical gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 240, 1456-1462 https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.240.12.1456Raghavan Malathi, Glickman Nita, McCabe George, Lantz Gary, Glickman Lawrence T. (2004): Diet-Related Risk Factors for Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus in Dogs of High-Risk Breeds. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 40, 192-203 https://doi.org/10.5326/0400192Schaible RH, Ziech J, Glickman NW, Schellenberg D, Yi Q, Glickman LT (1997): Predisposition to gastric dilatation-volvulus in relation to genetics of thoracic conformation in Irish setters. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 33, 379-383 https://doi.org/10.5326/15473317-33-5-379Schellenberg D, Yi Q, Glickman NW, Glickman LT (1998): Influence of thoracic conformation and genetics on the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus in Irish setters. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 34, 64-73 https://doi.org/10.5326/15473317-34-1-64Theyse L. F. H., van de Brom W. E., van Sluijs F. J. (1998): Small size of food particles and age as risk factors for gastric dilatation volvulus in great danes. Veterinary Record, 143, 48-50 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.143.2.48