Disinfection of potable water sources on animal farms and their microbiological safety

https://doi.org/10.17221/8818-VETMEDCitation:Hruskova T., Sasakova N., Bujdosova Z., Kvokacka V., Gregova G., Verebova V., Valko-Rokytovska M., Takac L. (2016): Disinfection of potable water sources on animal farms and their microbiological safety. Veterinarni Medicina, 61: 173-186.
download PDF
The aim of this study was to examine drinking water on three farms in eastern Slovakia and to determine experimentally the optimum dose for adequate disinfection in terms of devitalisation of potential pathogens while observing the limit for residual active chlorine (0.3 mg/l) in drinking water. Our investigations included bacteriological examination focused on general contamination and indicator bacteria (bacteria cultivated at 22 and 37 °C, total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci), physico-chemical examination (pH, ammonium ions, nitrites, nitrates, chlorides, free chlorine, chemical oxygen demand CODMn and Ca + Mg), and EEM (excitation emission matrix) fluorescence spectroscopy which focused on the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). After determining the optimum single dose of Chloramine T for disinfection of water used for watering of animals, the bacteriological quality of water was checked on the 5th day after the disinfection. The results showed that water quality was better on Farm No. 3 than on Farms No. 1 and No. 2. The weather (precipitation) evidently affected the quality of water on all three farms and was associated with some risk to animals consuming this water. The experimentally determined doses of Chloramine T appeared relatively efficient on Farm No. 1 and Farm No. 3, while the Chloramine T dose estimated for adequate disinfection on Farm No. 2 had to be increased considerably but was still much lower than the dose recommended by the manufacturer of this preparation. It appeared effective to adjust the intervals between individual chlorine treatments according to weather conditions (heavy rain) instead of increasing the active chlorine dose.  
Ashbolt Nicholas John (2004): Microbial contamination of drinking water and disease outcomes in developing regions. Toxicology, 198, 229-238  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2004.01.030
Badawy Mohamed I., Gad-Allah Tarek A., Ali Mohamed E.M., Yoon Yeoman (2012): Minimization of the formation of disinfection by-products. Chemosphere, 89, 235-240  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.04.025
Bartelt-Hunt Shannon, Snow Daniel D., Damon-Powell Teyona, Miesbach David (2011): Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 123, 94-103  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.12.010
Block SS (2001): Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.
Bonton Alexandre, Rouleau Alain, Bouchard Christian, Rodriguez Manuel J. (2010): Assessment of groundwater quality and its variations in the capture zone of a pumping well in an agricultural area. Agricultural Water Management, 97, 824-834  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.01.009
Chen Wen, Westerhoff Paul, Leenheer Jerry A., Booksh Karl (2003): Fluorescence Excitation−Emission Matrix Regional Integration to Quantify Spectra for Dissolved Organic Matter. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 5701-5710  https://doi.org/10.1021/es034354c
Cho J (): Heavy contamination of a subsurface aquifer and a stream by livestock wastewater in a stock farming area, Wonju, Korea. Environmental Pollution, 109, 137-146  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00230-4
Chowdhury Shakhawat (2013): Exposure assessment for trihalomethanes in municipal drinking water and risk reduction strategy. Science of The Total Environment, 463-464, 922-930  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.06.104
Dubayova K, Ticha M, Kusnir J, Luckova I, Rigdova K, Gondova T (2008): The fluorescence contour map as “identity card” of spring waters (in Slovak). In: The use of chemical methods in protecting and promoting public health. Program and Book of Abstracts, 9.–10. September in Košice.
EC Regulations (2007): European Communities (Drinking Water) Regulations, Statutory Instruments, No.106.
EHFS – Environmental Health Fact Sheet (2013): The Effect of pH on Disinfection in Aquatic Facilities. No. 473.
Fawell J. (2003): Contaminants in drinking water. British Medical Bulletin, 68, 199-208  https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldg027
Fridrich Beata, Krčmar Dejan, Dalmacija Božo, Molnar Jelena, Pešić Vesna, Kragulj Marijana, Varga Nataša (2014): Impact of wastewater from pig farm lagoons on the quality of local groundwater. Agricultural Water Management, 135, 40-53  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2013.12.014
Grant M (1997): A new membrane filtration medium for simultaneous detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms. Applied Environmental Microbiology 63, 3526–3530.
Gunten U (2003): Ozonation of drinking water. Part II: Disinfection and by-product formation in presence of bromide, iodide or chlorine, Water Research 37, 1469–1487.
Horakova M. et al. (2003): Water Analytics (in Czech). 2nd ed. University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague.
Hussain SN, de las Heras N, Asghar HMA, Brown NW, Roberts EPL (2014): Disinfection of water by adsorption combined with electrochemical treatment, Water Research 54, 170–178.
Jirotkova D, Soch M, Kernerova V, Palka V, Eidelpesova L (2012): Use of electrolyzed water in animal production. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 2, 447–483.
Kijovska L (2013): The effects of disinfectants on microorganisms In: Kijovska L (ed.): Ecotoxicology in Slovak Water Management (in Slovak). 1st ed. Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava. 234–236.
Krapac I.G, Dey W.S, Roy W.R, Smyth C.A, Storment E, Sargent S.L, Steele J.D (2002): Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality. Environmental Pollution, 120, 475-492  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00115-X
Kroupova H, Machova J, Svobodova Z (2005): Nitrite influence on fish: a review. Veterinarni Medicina 50, 461–471.
Li Mengkai, Qiang Zhimin, Bolton James R., Li Wentao, Chen Peng (2014): UV disinfection of secondary water supply: Online monitoring with micro-fluorescent silica detectors. Chemical Engineering Journal, 255, 165-170  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.06.025
Liu Wei, Zhang Zaili, Yang Xin, Xu Yiyue, Liang Yongmei (2012): Effects of UV irradiation and UV/chlorine co-exposure on natural organic matter in water. Science of The Total Environment, 414, 576-584  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.031
Lyon Bonnie A., Cory Rose M., Weinberg Howard S. (2014): Changes in dissolved organic matter fluorescence and disinfection byproduct formation from UV and subsequent chlorination/chloramination. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 264, 411-419  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.10.065
Macler AB, Pontius WF (1997): Groundwater Disinfection: Chlorine’s role in public health. Journal American Water Works Association, 4.
Markechova D, Tomkova M, Sadecka J (2013): Fluorescence excitation – emission matrix spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis in drinking water treatment: A review. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 22, 1289–1295.
Michalus M, Bratska Z (2000): Medical-sanitary requirements for drinking water in light of current legislation in the Slovak Republic (in Slovak). Groundwater 6, 59–66.
Morari F., Lugato E., Polese R., Berti A., Giardini L. (2012): Nitrate concentrations in groundwater under contrasting agricultural management practices in the low plains of Italy. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 147, 47-56  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2011.03.001
Ojo IO, Otieno OAF, Ochieng MG (2012): Groundwater: Characteristics, qualities, pollutions and treatments: An overview. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 4, 162–170.
Pitter P (2009): Hydrochemie (in Czech). 4th ed. University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague. 568 pp.
Raudales Rosa E., Parke Jennifer L., Guy Charles L., Fisher Paul R. (2014): Control of waterborne microbes in irrigation: A review. Agricultural Water Management, 143, 9-28  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.06.007
Regulation of the Government of the SR No. 322/2003 Coll. – about farm animals.
Regulation of the Government of the SR No. 354/2006 Coll. – about waters.
Regulation of the Government of the SR No. 368/2007 Coll. – on protection of animals kept for farming purposes.
Regulation of the Government of the SR No. 496/2010 Coll. – defining requirements for water intended for human consumption and quality control of water intended for human consumption.
Sasakova N, Veselitz-Lakticova K, Hromada R, Chvojka D, Koscco J, Ondrasovic M (2013): Contamination of individual sources of drinking water located in environmentally polluted Central Spis Region (Slovakia). Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 3, 262–265.
Sila ON, Kotut K, Okemo P (2013): Techniques for potable water treatment using appropriate low cost natural materials in the tropics. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 2, 2294–2300.
Sorlini Sabrina, Gialdini Francesca, Biasibetti Michela, Collivignarelli Carlo (2014): Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation. Water Research, 54, 44-52  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.038
STN EN ISO 5814 (2013): Water quality. Determination of dissolved oxygen. Electrochemical probe method (in Slovak).
STN EN ISO 6222 (1999): Water quality. Enumeration of culturable micro-organisms. Colony count inoculation in a nutrient agar culture medium (in Slovak).
STN EN ISO 7393-3 (1990): Water quality. Determination of free chlorine and total chlorine. Part 3: Iodometric titration method for the determination of total chlorine (in Slovak).
STN EN ISO 7899-2 (2000): Water quality. Detection and enumeration of intestinal enterococci. Part 2: Membrane filtration method (in Slovak).
STN EN ISO 8467 (2000): Water quality. Determination of permanganate index (in Slovak).
STN ISO 9297 (2000): Water quality. Determination of chloride. Silver nitrate titration with chromate indicator (Mohr‘s method) (in Slovak).
STN EN ISO 9308-1 (1990): Water quality. Detection and enumeration of coliform organisms, thermotolerant coliform organisms and presumptive Escherichia coli. Membrane filtration method. (in Slovak).
STN EN ISO 10523 (2010): Water quality. Determination of pH (in Slovak).
Varchola V, Kijovsky P, Kijovsky F (2013–2014): Agrofarma Kijovsky – the largest producer of Fleckvieh bulls for natural mating in Slovakia. Fleckvieh World, 35–37.
WHO (1996): Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Health criteria and other supporting information. 2nd ed. Vol.2, Geneva.
WHO (2008): Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality 3rd ed. Vol.1. Recommendations, Geneva.
WHO (2011): Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Fact sheet No. 125.
Zhao Yuli, Anichina Janna, Lu Xiufen, Bull Richard J., Krasner Stuart W., Hrudey Steve E., Li Xing-Fang (2012): Occurrence and formation of chloro- and bromo-benzoquinones during drinking water disinfection. Water Research, 46, 4351-4360  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.05.032
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti