Septic shock associated with complex infection by crop Candida and bacteria in two blue-fronted amazon parrots: a case report

https://doi.org/10.17221/8885-VETMEDCitation:Lee E., Kim A., Lee E., Park S., Jeong K. (2016): Septic shock associated with complex infection by crop Candida and bacteria in two blue-fronted amazon parrots: a case report. Veterinarni Medicina, 61: 288-294.
download PDF
Infectious disease is frequently associated with morbidity and mortality in companion birds. The clinical features of these bacterial and fungal diseases may be influenced by stress factors and the condition of the patient. We report a case of sepsis induced by complex infection by Candida fungi and gram-negative bacteria originating from the crop in two blue-fronted amazon parrots several days after import. On gross necropsy, severe cachexia and vomit within the oesophagus were found. White foci were observed in the kidney, liver, lung, and spleen of one parrot. In both patients, the crop contained cheese-like lesions within a white layer along the mucosa. Histopathologically, the crop mucosa was ulcerated with fungal hyphae and spores (Candida spp.), and bacteria within the ulcerated lesions. The mucosal epithelium of the digestive organs, including the crop, proventriculus, ventriculus, and intestines, were severely exfoliated and lysed in both patients. The solid organs, including the spleen, kidney, and liver, showed necrotic and/or apoptotic lesions. Rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria were observed within the heart ventricles, lung, and liver of one parrot, along with white foci in the solid organs grossly. Based on staining analysis of the crop mucosa, histopathological findings, and clinical history, we surmise that these two birds died due to sepsis originating from complex infection with crop fungi (candidiasis) and gram-negative bacteria.
References:
Ackermann MR (2006): Acute inflammation, 138–140. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF. (eds.): Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 4th ed. Elsevier Health Sciences, Philadelphia. 1476 pp.
 
Bauck LB (1994): Mycoses, 998–1006. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR. (eds.): Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Wingers Publishing, Lake Worth. 1384 pp.
 
Bethea E. K., Carver B. J., Montedonico A. E., Reynolds T. B. (2010): The inositol regulon controls viability in Candida glabrata. Microbiology, 156, 452-462  https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.030072-0
 
Chute HL (1997): Mycosis of the digestive tract, 361–365. In: Calnek BW (ed.): Diseases of Poultry. 10th ed. Iowa State University, Ames. 1080 pp.
 
Dhama Kuldeep, Chakrabort Sandip, Verma Amit Kumar, Tiwari Ruchi, Barathidas Rajamani, Kumar Amit, Singh Shambhu Dayal (2013): Fungal/Mycotic Diseases of Poultry-diagnosis, Treatment and Control: A Review. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16, 1626-1640  https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2013.1626.1640
 
Gerlach H (1994): Bacteria, 950–964. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR (eds.): Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Wingers Publishing, Lake Worth. 1384 pp.
 
Hubalek Z. (1978): Coincidence of Fungal Species Associated with Birds. Ecology, 59, 438-442  https://doi.org/10.2307/1936572
 
Mayeda Bryan (1961): Candidiasis in Turkeys and Chickens in the Sacramento Valley of California. Avian Diseases, 5, 232-  https://doi.org/10.2307/1587632
 
O’Meara DC, Witter JF (1971): Candidiasis, 163–169. In: Davis JW, Anderson RC, Karstad L, Trainer DO (eds.): Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of Wild Birds. Iowa State University Press, Ames, 344 pp.
 
Odd FC (1994): Candida species and virulence. ASM News 60, 313–361.
 
Oglesby BL (1997): Mycotic diseases, 327. In: Altman RB (ed.): Avian Medicine and Surgery. 1st ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 1070 pp.
 
Velasco Michelle Curtis (2000): Candidiasis and cryptococcosis in birds. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, 9, 75-81  https://doi.org/10.1053/AX.2000.4620
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences