Septic shock associated with complex infection by crop Candida and bacteria in two blue-fronted amazon parrots: a case report
E. Lee, A. Kim, E. Lee, S. Park, K. Jeonghttps://doi.org/10.17221/8885-VETMEDCitation:Lee E., Kim A., Lee E., Park S., Jeong K. (2016): Septic shock associated with complex infection by crop Candida and bacteria in two blue-fronted amazon parrots: a case report. Veterinarni Medicina, 61: 288-294.
Infectious disease is frequently associated with morbidity and mortality in companion birds. The clinical features of these bacterial and fungal diseases may be influenced by stress factors and the condition of the patient. We report a case of sepsis induced by complex infection by Candida fungi and gram-negative bacteria originating from the crop in two blue-fronted amazon parrots several days after import. On gross necropsy, severe cachexia and vomit within the oesophagus were found. White foci were observed in the kidney, liver, lung, and spleen of one parrot. In both patients, the crop contained cheese-like lesions within a white layer along the mucosa. Histopathologically, the crop mucosa was ulcerated with fungal hyphae and spores (Candida spp.), and bacteria within the ulcerated lesions. The mucosal epithelium of the digestive organs, including the crop, proventriculus, ventriculus, and intestines, were severely exfoliated and lysed in both patients. The solid organs, including the spleen, kidney, and liver, showed necrotic and/or apoptotic lesions. Rod-shaped, gram-negative bacteria were observed within the heart ventricles, lung, and liver of one parrot, along with white foci in the solid organs grossly. Based on staining analysis of the crop mucosa, histopathological findings, and clinical history, we surmise that these two birds died due to sepsis originating from complex infection with crop fungi (candidiasis) and gram-negative bacteria.Keywords:
blue-fronted amazon parrot; sepsis; candidiasis; bacterial infection; histopathology; diagnosisReferences:
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